Hospitals & Asylums    


Roster of the United Nations




Anthony Joseph Sanders




Making the Roster


1. The United Nations is the universally respected international government.  The UN Charter is however far from democratic.  The Secretaries and Directors of the UN are elected by the General Assembly and Security Council, they are not freely elected by the people in cooperation between the constitutional democracies of the world.   It is not enough to draft an International Taxation System in amendment of Chapter XII of the UN Charter to get a 1% international development (ID) social security tax on the pay stub of every worker.  To be fertile for democracy the UN must also amend the UN Charter for the Secretary of the United Nations (SUN) and Parliament to relinquish the title, “General” in order lead the States of the United Nations (SUN) more peacefully.  Nowhere is this more pressing than with the Under Secretary, “General” of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA) NGO Section, who has sent an emissary, Ms. Meena Sur, to entertain my application to put Hospitals & Asylums (HA) on the roster of Non Governmental Organizations, this 1 March, in time to encourage me to update this Official Development Atlas of the States of the United Nations, in March, as scheduled in Art. 10 of the Constitution of Hospitals & Asylums Non Governmental Economics (CHANGE).


2. Having faithfully served the United Nations with the quarterly journal since 2003 and Art. 3 of the aforementioned Constitution mentions that HA has applied to the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) to make suitable arrangements for consultation as a non-governmental organization under Art. 71 of the UN Charter and ECOSOC Resolution 1996/31 pursuant to the application of HA-25-5-05. This remains agreeable with HA, as long as the UN upholds the moral and material interests of the author and takes the utmost care not to damage the interests of the United States of America, or any other nation of citizens.  We do not like levies for war, which we consider treason, we do not like the death penalty that we consider murder, we do not like military occupations of foreign countries that we consider war, we do not like prosecution that we consider slavery, we do not like military dictators to interfere with our private lives, we do not like martyrs, we do not like overspending, we do not like censure.  We like democracy, we like peace, we like freedom, we like civilian government, we like intellectual property to improve the lives of the public. 


3. The Director General of World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), Dr. Kamil Idris said, “I hope this spirit of compromise and mutual understanding will persist”.  International efforts to build the intellectual property system are balanced and responsive to the needs and interests of all countries – developed and developing.  Intellectual property protection is not an end in itself, but should serve a wider social and economic interest. The rights of inventors and authors have to be balanced by wider considerations of the good of society.  HA does take the best interest of society into consideration.  HA should be reinstated the first Google response string for the phrase Hospitals & Asylums.  The people are entitled to read HA, for free.  The people are encouraged to write to HA.  Free trade is however controversial because, if trade is free then how does one earn money from its sale?  Are there no States who wish to pay membership dues to HA?  Is there no way to earn a middle class living publishing HA manuscripts on the Internet?  Are no publishing companies interested in paying to have this Atlas and other HA manuscripts edited for US Congress?  Can the DESA NGO Section help by advertising the HA NGO in their Roster and sending some sort of accreditation to the writer?  In return for economic growth HA will continue to serve the free quadrennial newsletter.


Table 1: Constitutional Bill


Constitutional Sales


New Iraq Constitutional Elections (NICE)


Draft Constitution Establishing a Korean Union (CoK)


Jose Antonio Ocampo v. Luis Moreno Ocampo


Google Inc. v. HA

One Google share

Annual Revision of the Atlas of the SUN


Total Labor Cost



4. To be effective there are several articles of intellectual property that should be purchased by the States of the United Nations for the people to fully enjoy the benefits of the author’s work.  If the author, is not granted the middle class income he invents for millions, he cannot verify the benevolence of the settlement, investors must be cautious and should consider paying the disenfranchised draftsman themselves.  The threshold of this work for sale to the United Nations is constitutional documents.  The Constitution of Korea was successful in securing a 1,000 trillion won revision of the CIA World Fact Book however without properly purchasing the constitutional document they seized the office of Secretary General, without having done the domestic work HA so carefully ordered to set $2,400 precedence for the payment of an English - Korean translator 2.4 million won.  The Iraqi Constitution was the first Constitution drafted immediately after the $20 billion reparations broke and the United Nations represented the Constitutional Conference and Elections.  It is time for the US to leave.  The $33 billion reparation was the largest in the history of international law at the Madrid Conference that established the Iraq Reconstruction Fund and buoyed Jose Antonio Ocampo to the office of Under Secretary General of DESA in 2003 where he practiced his trade of publishing several books a year. It is hoped to have first Google page rank restored.  Hoping not to let this role model down Tony has resolved to set down his 1,000 page HA legal text, and write no less than one finished manuscript a year for a publishing company willing to pay $2,400 a year for the annual revisions of the Atlas in March plus any royalties.  This year HA is producing three manuscripts – this Atlas, the US Lobbying Activity Disclosure balancing the budget and international trade of the first day of 2007, and the HA legal text with bibliography in August.  It is hoped that the DESA NGO Roster will help sell this high valued intellectual property and general subscriptions to HA member states.  In return for this recognition HA shall solicit for international development contributions at higher levels of professionalism.


A. Climate Change


5. The environment is always a great source of international solidarity in regards to sustainable development as it appeals to both capitalists 
and conservatives. 70.8%, 361.132 million sq km of the world's 510.072 million sq km surface is water, 29.2%, 148.94 million sq km is land.  
As the result of the symbiosis between biotic life and the evaporation of water the Earth has developed an atmosphere. Air contains roughly 
78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 0.93% argon, 0.04% carbon dioxide, and trace amounts of other gases, in addition to about 3% water vapor. The 
atmosphere protects life on Earth by absorbing ultraviolet radiation and reducing temperature extremes between day and night.  Three 
quarters of the atmosphere's mass is within 11 km of the planetary surface.  The Karman line, at 100 km (62 miles), is also frequently used 
as the boundary between atmosphere and outer space. Most environmental programs involve ensuring harmonious relations between the 
development objectives of man and the environment.  Major treaties have been drafted regarding the protection of endangered species and 
forests.  The objectives are the conservation of biological diversity, the sustainable use of its components and the fair and equitable sharing 
of the benefits and contribution to the management, conservation and sustainable development of forests and to provide for their multiple 
and complementary functions and uses.  We have learned that people in their right to exploit natural resources to improve their living 
conditions must be caretakers of environment if they wish to continue to enjoy the benefits.  

6. In the past few decades global warming and emissions have become a major issue.  The Al Gore documentary an Inconvenient Truth explains that carbon fuel emissions in the atmosphere are causing a warming in the global climate.  Although the US is the largest air polluter most regulated by the Kyoto Protocol of 16 February 2005 that binds the US to reduce their emissions by 7% pursuant to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change of 11 December 1997.  The Protocol entered into force on 16 February, 2005.  The United States imports more than 13 million barrels of oil per day, mostly to fuel our cars and trucks. The Energy Policy Act 2005, expanded the federal tax incentives for electricity production from wind, solar, biomass, and other renewable sources.  The act also required that 7.5 billion gallons per year of renewable fuels, including ethanol, be used in motor vehicles by 2012 and require utility companies to produce at least 15 percent of electricity from renewable sources.  This can happen more quickly by providing incentives in the form of subsidies and tax relief to producers of renewable, and also to households using energy efficient technology.  Another way we can become more energy independent is to get more out of the energy we use and exploit the natural resources of the nation rather than relying upon imports.  As cutting-edge renewable energy and energy efficient technology advances, the federal government should be among the first consumers of it.  By purchasing flexible-fuel vehicles and using more efficient lighting, the federal government will help create a market for these technologies while putting taxpayer dollars to good use.    


7. The average temperature of the earth's surface has risen by 0.6 degrees C since the late 1800s. It is expected to increase by another 1.4 to 5.8 degrees C by the year 2100 -- a rapid and profound change. Even if the minimum predicted increase takes place, it will be larger than any century-long trend in the last 10,000 years.  The principal reason for the mounting thermometer is a century and a half of industrialization: the burning of ever-greater quantities of oil, gasoline, and coal, the cutting of forests, and certain farming methods.  These activities have increased the amount of "greenhouse gases" in the atmosphere, especially carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide. Such gases occur naturally and are critical for life on earth; they keep some of the sun's warmth from reflecting back into space, and without them the world would be a cold and barren place. Whereas global warming is an international problem, involving weather patterns that transcend international boundaries, climate change must be formally redressed by the world’s most prolific polluter, the United States.  The 1990s appear to have been the warmest decade of the last Millennium, and 1998 the warmest year.  The global mean surface temperature in 2006 is currently estimated to be + 0.42°C above the 1961-1990 an­nual average (14°C/57.2°F), according to the records maintained by Members of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), making 2006 the sixth warmest year on record. Averaged separately for both hemi­spheres, 2006 surface temperatures for the northern hemisphere (0.58°C above 30-year mean of 14.6°C/58.28°F) are likely to be the fourth warmest and for the southern hemisphere (0.26°C above 30-year mean of 13.4°C/56.12°F), the seventh warmest in the instrumental re­cord from 1861 to the present.  Since the start of the 20th century, the global average surface temperature has risen approximately 0.7°C. But this rise has not been continuous. Since 1976, the global average temperature has risen sharply, at 0.18°C per decade. In the northern and southern hemispheres, the period 1997-2006 averaged 0.53°C and 0.27°C above the 1961-1990 mean, respectively.


8. On 25 September, the maximum area of the 2006 ozone hole over the Antarctic was recorded at 29.5 million km², slightly larger than the previous record area of 29.4 million km² reached in September 2000. These values are so similar that the ozone holes of these two years could be judged of equal size. The size and persistence of the 2006 ozone hole area with its ozone mass deficit of 40.8 megatonnes (also a record) can be explained by the continuing presence of near-peak levels of ozone-depleting substances in combination with a particularly cold stratospheric winter. Low temperatures in the first part of January prompted a 20 per cent loss in the ozone layer over the Arctic in 2006 (see WMO Press Release 760). Milder temperatures from late Janu­ary precluded the large ozone loss seen in 2005. The year 2006 continues the pattern of sharply decreasing Arctic sea ice. The average sea-ice extent for the entire month of September was 5.9 million km², the second lowest on record missing the 2005 record by 340 000 km². Including 2006, the September rate of sea ice decline is now approximately -8.59% per decade, or 60 421 km² per year. Joint WMO Press Release No. 768. 


9. The current warming trend is expected to cause extinctions. Numerous plant and animal species, already weakened by pollution and loss of habitat, are not expected to survive the next 100 years. Human beings, while not threatened in this way, are likely to face mounting difficulties. Recent severe storms, floods and droughts, for example, appear to show that computer models predicting more frequent "extreme weather events" are on target.  The sea level rose on average by 10 to 20 cm during the 20th century, and an additional increase of 9 to 88 cm is expected by the year 2100. (Higher temperatures cause ocean volume to expand, and melting glaciers and ice caps add more water.) If the higher end of that scale is reached, the sea could overflow the heavily populated coastlines of such countries as Bangladesh, cause the disappearance of some nations entirely (such as the island state of the Maldives), foul freshwater supplies for billions of people, and spur mass migrations.  Agricultural yields are expected to drop in most tropical and sub-tropical regions -- and in temperate regions, too, if the temperature increase is more than a few degrees C. Drying of continental interiors, such as central Asia, the African Sahel, and the Great Plains of the United States, is also forecast. These changes could cause, at a minimum, disruptions in land use and food supply and the range of diseases.


10. Reducing our reliance on fossil fuels will not only lead us to energy independence, it will help us begin to reverse the problems associated with climate change.  Climate change is a serious problem that must be addressed and Parliament should implement a mandatory program to reduce those gases.  Humans burning fossil fuels create greenhouse gases. Rising temperatures are posing a substantial risk of rising sea-levels, altered patterns of atmospheric and oceanic circulation, and increased frequency and severity of floods and droughts.  We can’t ignore this problem any longer.  We must legislate real reductions in greenhouse gases while allowing the economy to continue to grow.  The plan is to limit the amount of carbon released into the atmosphere by capping greenhouse emissions of all major emitters, while allowing companies to buy, sell and trade carbon credits, market forces should.  The end result will be a system that provides significant market incentives for responsible behavior and adds significant costs for irresponsible action. Regulation has been effective producing a 40 percent decrease between 1999 and 2005 in Ohio and nearby States due to control measures in electric power plants  Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and nitric oxide (NO) are two gases that form a group of pollutants known as nitrogen ox­ides (NOx), which are created primarily through fossil fuel burning. When combined with other gases and sunlight, they form ozone, the major urban air pollutant in smog.


B. Budgeting International Development Until 2020


11. It is very important to balance statistical books yearly and to account for vital statistics and economics for Says’ Law, that aggregate demand equals aggregate supply, to sustain the Official Development Assistance (ODA) until such a time when a formal income tax administration is chartered.  To help us reflect upon our progress achieving the UN Millennium Development Goals for 2015, the HA Atlas Tables have been updated with information from the CIA World Fact Book from February 2007.  A new column had been added to the Vital Statistics from the World Prison Brief from April 2005.  According to the results of this study the world population is estimated to be between 6.56 and 6.8 billion but could be higher as the result of hundreds of millions of undocumented residents.  The gross domestic product (GDP) of the world is estimated at $63.5 trillion.  The average per capita GDP is $9,600.  The average life expectancy is estimated at 67.86 years with a low of 33 years in Swaziland and high of 84 years in Andorra. A new column pertaining to the incarceration rate per 100,000 citizens has been added, to reflect a 162 average with a high of 737 in the USA and low of 22 in the Republic of Congo, the arbitrary legal limit is 250.  Global national administration is estimated at $14 trillion in revenues and $15 trillion in expenditure.  Global foreign debts are estimated to be $43.82 trillion.  International trade is estimated at $12 trillion.


Table 2: 2007 Continental Total Scan


Click Continent for Table


GDP in billion US Dollar

Per capita GDP

ODA in million US Dollar














Middle East & Central Asia






South East Asia and Oceania













Vital Stat


6,563,365,113 – 6.8 billion







12. Without accounting for every nation again, this 2007, ODA is predicted to actually levy $120.5 billion and disburse $112 billion - $125 billion is a good goal for contributions, so early in the year.  This is a conservative 12.6% increase over 2006 when Google and HA agreed $111 was the number, a 24.5% increase from $89 billion in 2005 after two year of 20% growth since 2003 when ODA was $64 billion, not including the $33 billion Madrid settlement that got HA started.  If growth continues at 20% ODA could reach $133.2 billion this 2007, particularly if the $7 billion for the reconstruction of Lebanon is accounted for.  If the steady increase in ODA contributions towards 0.7% of the GDP in Europe ODA growth can be expected to continue increasing at 20% annually.  If the US would account for private donations to achieve this interim goal growth rate could increase. In 2004 European Union ODA was estimated at $46,499 million from the reports of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD).  This is estimated to have increased to $60 billion in 2006 and $75 billion in 2007 and $100 billion by 2010 when most nations would begin to achieve the 0.7% of GDP objective.


Table 3: Estimated ODA 2003-2010 at a predictable 20% annual growth rate, in billions





















13. Jose Antonio Ocampo Under Secretary General for the DESA in the introduction to the World Social Survey of 2006 wrote, the last 20 or 25 years have presented quite encouraging success in poverty reduction.  Some 400 million people have escaped poverty in the last 20 years.  Over half that number is just in China alone. Africa unfortunately has been slipping backwards during that same period. In sub-Saharan Africa 20 years ago, 150 million people lived in what we define as extreme poverty, that’s a dollar a day or less and poverty would be roughly twice that level, so we’re talking about really extreme conditions.  Although since 1995 there are 15 African countries that have achieved annual median growth rates of 5 percent the number of people living on less than $1 a day in Africa has doubled to some 300 million in 2005 despite considerable development assistance.  At the High Level Segment of the Substantive Session of ECOSOC HA-29-6-05 it was estimated that 843 million people in developing and transition countries continue to be hungry and over a billion live on less than a dollar a day. Developing countries are acknowledging the need to commit more resources for development that benefit the poor. Donor countries are taking steps to increase official development assistance to countries committed to poverty and hunger reduction.  With about 75 percent of the poor and hungry in developing countries in either Asia or living in rural areas, promoting investments in agricultural and rural development, in particular, is fundamental. 


 Table 4: Millennium Development Goals and Beyond 2000-2020









6.0 billion

6.6 billion

7.0 billion

7.5 billion

8 billion


$50 trillion

$60 trillion

$75 trillion

$90 trillion

$100 trillion

Per capita







$50 billion

$100 billion

$200 billion

$400 billion

$800 billion


14. The development slump of the 1990s, when many African nations actually backslid into poverty, is over.  Unity under the UN Millennium Development Goals has helped lead developing nations to show higher economic growth rates than the 4% average while developed nations tend to grow slower.  In 2003 UNDP estimated that $64.130 billion were administrated in ODA plus $33 billion from the Madrid Conference on the Iraq Reconstruction Fund - $97.13 billion annual total.  In 2004 we reaffirmed our commitment to a $1 trillion decade for 2015.  In 2005 ODA could be estimated at approximately $89.13 billion plus remittances of migrants to their families, also known as direct investment of $167 billion, a total of $256 billion.  Can this atlas assist the Committee on Contributions under Rule 160 of the Procedure of the General Assembly of 31 December 1984 as it is concerned with the administration of ODA in order to set, meet and exceed short and medium term goals for private and public international economic cooperation impacting outdated Human Development Data?  If 1% of the GDP were taxed by the United Nations, in current dollars, as called for in Art. 23 of the Declaration on Social Progress and Development of 11 December 1969 and the new Chapter on the International Taxation System, in the following article, ODA would be $635 billion, in 2007 dollars.  If the UN Charter could be amended to have an International Tax Administration by 2015 it is conceivable that the UN Parliaments could administrate graduated 1% income taxes for international development by 2020.  This money should invested in water treatment and sewage against the benefit checks for individual living below the national poverty line.  Water scarcity is the theme of this year’s World Water Day on March 22. Scarcity is a major concern in places where water resources are already stretched to the limit. Some 1.1 billion people don’t have access to safe drinking water and another 2.6 billion lack basic sanitation. The Middle East and North Africa, for instance, already uses 80 percent of the water in the region, according to a Bank report, “Making the Most of Scarcity.”


C. Socio Economic Continents


15. To improve the study of international relations the HA atlas heightens scrutiny upon the regional charter government of five arbitrarily determined continents, whose governments account for regions self determinately.  In July 2006 the American continent had a population of 893,456,036 with a per capita of $19,400, the Middle East, Central Asia and North Africa 725,605,829 with per capita of $4,175, Europe 738,425,494 with per capita of $21,600, Sub Saharan Africa 751,055,142 with per capita of $3,604 and South East Asia including Oceania 3,454,822,612 with a per capita of $9,522.  The objective of regional cooperation is to administrate ODA to those people most in need.  The people most in need can be found in Africa where 500 million people frequently suffer incomes less than $1 a day and millions of people are dying of AIDS, particularly in the most literate nations where 30% of the population is infected.  The Middle East and Central Asia are torn with strife in the Holy Land, Lebanon, Iraq and Afghanistan.  Lebanon has been promised $7 billion in reparations.  There are high hopes that Afghanistan can make peace with the national economy by monopolizing the National Opium Agency and become entitled to $10 billion in debt forgiveness and $10 billion more in reparations so that Afghanistan would be on its way to becoming a modern democratic state at peace with its people. 


16. Asia is developing at an astounding rate, led by China and regional free trade agreements.  South East Asia seems most on track to achieving the Millennium Development Goals and in a few decades will become the center of global economic activity.  More people live in the European Union, 486 million, than in the United States, 300 million.  Accordingly Europe has a higher GDP than the USA.  The Americas have thrived under regional free trade agreements and are developing nicely.  Oil rich Venezuela has even begun donating international development assistance to worthwhile projects in Latin America.  Negative ODA indicates donation and positive indicates receiver.  The United States is the largest aid donor in absolute terms, though only Denmark, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway and Sweden have met the United Nations ODA target of 0.7 per cent of gross national income (GNI). Five other countries have committed themselves to meet the 0.7 per cent target: Ireland by 2007, Belgium by 2010, France and Spain by 2012 and the United Kingdom by 2013


Table 5: Administrative Regions





GDP in billion

per capita GDP

ODA 2003

ODA 2006

Regional Government



America Totals








Organization of American States



Middle East, Central Asia and North Africa (MECA) Total







Organization of Islamic Conferences



South East Asia Total






25,500         -17,000

Association of South East Asian States



Europe Total






-59,296 19,717

European Union



Sub-Saharan Africa Total







African Union



World Total








United Nations




17. Economic growth was highest in the Middle East, Central Asia and North Africa at 7.5%, followed by Sub Saharan Africa at 5.22%, Europe at 4.4% and America and Asia tied with 3.7%.  The total world labor force is estimated at 2.816 billion, 43% of the world population.  This means that 57% of the world’s population is without formal employment although as the result of retirement, disability and under the table work only 13% of the planet is unemployed, meaning they are actively seeking work.   An estimated 30% of the world’s population lives below the national poverty and 14% live on less than the UN Millennium Declaration minimum of $1-$2 a day.  As the result of the international attention inflation has moderated over the past decades and the international average stands at 5.3%.  It is estimated that global government tax revenues were $14 trillion and global government expenditures $15 trillion.  25-40% of this deficit are from the US War Against Terrorism who last balanced their budget in 2000.  Globally there is estimated to be $44 trillion in foreign debt, $9 trillion of this US.  International trade balances $12 trillion in merchandise crossing international borders with 0.8% margin of error. 


Table 6: Regional Economics





Labor in millions

Unem       ploy


Below Poverty Line


Budget Revenue billions US $

Budget Expense billions US $

External Debt billion US $

Exports billions US $

Imports billions

US $

MECA totals











Sub Saharan Africa total











American total











South East Asia totals











Europe total











World totals













18. The large inequalities in income are paralleled by huge disparities in other indicators of well-being.  In 2002, the life expectancy of a child born in Japan (82 years), Switzerland (80 years) or the United States (77 years) was more than double that for a child born in Zambia (37 years), Malawi (38 years) or Botswana (38 years). Similarly, opportunities in education show huge disparities across countries.  Educational attainment measured in years of schooling amounted to less than 4 years in sub-Saharan Africa but to more than 12 years in developed countries.  In 1960, for instance, there were 73 countries whose citizens had a life expectancy of less than 50 years and 45 countries whose citizens had a life expectancy of 65 years or more.  Population data from the United Nations indicates that the number of countries in which a newborn was expected to live less than 50 years had dropped to 32 (all in sub-Saharan Africa), and the number of countries where he or she was expected to survive for at least 65 years had increased to 128. At the same time, inequalities in life expectancy at the extremes increased during the 1980s and 1990s, mainly because of the toll taken on lives in Africa by the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Many developing countries are falling behind in the race to sharply lower the numbers of deaths among pregnant women and children under the age of five, by the year 2015. More than 11 million children died in 2002 before reaching their fifth birthday from preventable illness, while as many as 500,000 women perished during pregnancy or childbirth.  Progress has been evident in education: the average number of years of schooling for all citizens almost doubled between 1960 and 2002, from 3.4 to 6.3.  The new column regarding detainees per 100,000 shoes


Table 7: Regional Vital Statistics






Births per ,000

Deaths per ,000


ation per ,000

Infant Mort

ality per ,000








ees Per 00,000

MECA total











Sub-Saharan Africa totals











America totals











Asia totals











Europe totals











World totals












E. Globalization of the United States


19. At the broadest level, globalization influences the conduct of monetary policy through its powerful effects on the economic and financial environment in which monetary policy must operate. As you know, several decades of global economic integration have left a large imprint on the structure of the U.S. economy, including changes in patterns of production, employment, trade, and financial flows. Other than by contributing to general economic and financial stability, monetary policy can do little to affect these structural changes or the powerful economic forces that drive them.  One direct effect of globalization has been to increase the time and attention that policymakers and staff must devote to following and understanding developments in other economies, in the world trading system, and in world capital markets.  A quarter-century ago, foreign holdings of U.S. financial assets were limited, and therefore, the influence of foreign investors and foreign financial conditions on U.S. financial markets was in most cases relatively modest.  Today, foreigners hold about one-quarter of the long-term fixed-income securities issued by U.S. entities of all types and more than half of publicly-held U.S. Treasury securities. Cross-border financial flows are enormous and growing: For example, in 2006, foreigners acquired on net more than $1.6 trillion in U.S. assets, while U.S. investors purchased more than $1 trillion in foreign assets, according to the Remarks by Chairman Ben S. Bernanke. Globalization and Monetary Policy. at the Fourth Economic Summit, Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research, Stanford, California of March 2, 2007


20. The Bureau of Economic Analysis reports that personal income increased $108.1 billion, or 1.0 percent, to $11,225.1 billion and disposable personal income (DPI) increased $73.0 billion, or 0.8 percent, to $9,793.3 billion, in January 2007.  Personal consumption expenditures (PCE) increased $51.9 billion, or 0.5 percent.   In chained 2000 dollars disposable personal income is $8,480.1 billion. Real gross domestic product -- the output of goods and services produced by labor and property located in the United States -- increased at an annual rate of 2.4 percent in the fourth quarter of 2006.  Current-dollar GDP -- the market value of the nation's output of goods and services -- increased 3.9 percent, or $127.3 billion, in the fourth quarter to a level of $13,449.9 billion.  In the third quarter, current-dollar GDP increased 3.8 percent, or $125.3 billion. Real GDP, using chained 2000 dollars, increased 3.3 percent in 2006, compared with an increase of 3.2 percent in 2005.  Real GDP increased $63 billion to $11,506.5 billion in fourth quarter 2006. The increase in real GDP in the fourth quarter primarily reflected positive contributions from personal consumption expenditures (PCE), exports, state and local government spending, and federal government spending that were partly offset by negative contributions from private inventory investment and residential fixed investment.  Imports, which are a subtraction in the calculation of GDP, decreased. On average, about 165,000 jobs per month have been added to non-farm payrolls over the past six months, and the unemployment rate, at 4.6 percent in January, remains low.  It is suspected that the BEA figures are grossly inflated. BEA Gross Domestic Product: Fourth Quarter 2006 (Preliminary) BEA-07-06. 28 February 2007.


21. In the Semiannual Monetary Policy Report to the Congress Chairman Bernanke said, Before the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs, U.S. Senate on February 14, 2007, Real activity in the United States expanded at a solid pace in 2006, although the pattern of growth was uneven. After a first-quarter rebound from weakness associated with the effects of the hurricanes that ravaged the Gulf Coast the previous summer, output growth moderated somewhat on average over the remainder of 2006. Real gross domestic product (GDP) is currently estimated to have increased at an annual rate of about 2-3/4 percent in the second half of the year.  As we anticipated in our July report, the U.S. economy appears to be making a transition from the rapid rate of expansion experienced over the preceding several years to a more sustainable average pace of growth. The principal source of the ongoing moderation has been a substantial cooling in the housing market, which has led to a marked slowdown in the pace of residential construction. However, the weakness in housing market activity and the slower appreciation of house prices do not seem to have spilled over to any significant extent to other sectors of the economy.  Moderation is also the key to analyzing the GDP according to the Remarks by Governor Kevin M. Warsh at the Institute of International Bankers Annual Washington Conference, on Market Liquidity: Definitions and Implications in Washington, D.C. of March 5, 2007


22. Chairman Bernanke, Before the Greater Omaha Chamber of Commerce, Omaha, Nebraska February 6, 2007 where he spoke on the Level and Distribution of Economic Well-Being.  A bedrock American principle is the idea that all individuals should have the opportunity to succeed on the basis of their own effort, skill, and ingenuity. Equality of economic opportunity appeals to our sense of fairness, certainly, but it also strengthens our economy. If each person is free to develop and apply his or her talents to the greatest extent possible, then both the individual and the economy benefit.  We believe that no one should be allowed to slip too far down the economic ladder, especially for reasons beyond his or her control. Like equality of opportunity, this general principle is grounded in economic practicality as well as our sense of fairness. To a significant extent, American economic success has resulted from the flexibility and adaptability of our dynamic market economy. Indeed, the ability of our labor and capital markets to accommodate and adapt to economic change has helped make possible the strong productivity performance of the U.S.  Economic opportunity should be as widely distributed and as equal as possible.  Economic outcomes need not be equal but should be linked to the contributions each person makes to the economy; and that people should receive some insurance against the most adverse economic outcomes, especially those arising from events largely outside the person's control.  The long-term trend toward greater inequality seen in real wages is also evident in broader measures of financial well-being, such as real household income. For example, the share of income received by households in the top fifth of the income distribution, after taxes have been paid and government transfers have been received, rose from 42 percent in 1979 to 50 percent in 2004, while the share of income received by those in the bottom fifth of the distribution declined from 7 percent to 5 percent. The share of after-tax income garnered by the households in the top 1 percent of the income distribution increased from 8 percent in 1979 to 14 percent in 2004 (Congressional Budget Office, 2006).

Table 8: US Budget and Trade Statistics Estimated (in billion) 2000 – 2010, Compared by HA 2006-2010

Table 1-1







Int. Trade

Acct. Def.
















































































































































































































23. The United States has two major problems to redress in order to come to grips with the $1 trillion account deficit.  The unified federal 
budget declined for a second year in fiscal year 2006, falling to $248 billion from $318 billion in fiscal 2005. Federal government outlays in 
fiscal 2006 were 20.3 percent of nominal gross domestic product (GDP), receipts were 18.4 percent of GDP, and the deficit (equal to the 
difference of the two) was 1.9 percent of GDP. The on-budget deficit, which differs from the unified budget deficit primarily in excluding 
receipts and payments of the Social Security system, was $434 billion, or 3.3 percent of GDP, in fiscal 2006. The military will need to 
contribute half of the forfeiture needed to balance the budget by setting pay as you go spending limits of $450 billion for Old Age, Survivor 
Insurance and $365 and going down for the Defense. Comments by Vice Chairman Donald L. Kohn on Understanding the Evolving 
Inflation Process at the U.S. Monetary Policy Forum, in Washington, D.C. of March 9, 2007.  American merchants, manufacturers 
and consumers must cooperate with import substitution policies to buy and sell American products to slow the growth of the trade 
deficit from - $829 billion in FY 2006 to less than $800 billion.  As a share of U.S. GDP, the trade deficit remained 6.6%.  At the 
turn of the millennium this negative balance became more pronounced and in 2005 the Bureau of Economic Analysis reported imports 
were valued at $1.677 trillion and exports of $894.6 billion for a balance of -$782.4 billion.  The U.S. current-account deficit is the 
broadest measure of U.S. international trade in goods and services, receipts and payments of income, and net unilateral current transfers. 
The most recent reports of the BEA indicate that a sustained interest in American manufacturing can actually cause the trade deficit to go 
down in scrutiny of International Transactions: Fourth Quarter and Year 2006. BEA-07-09 of 14 March 2007.  With attention to details 
and the purchase of the balanced budget and trade deficit from the author Congress should be able to keep the total account deficit less 
than $1 trillion and garner the confidence not to go into a recession this 2007. Congress must promote and regulate private development 
assistance in order to claim public debt relief credit from the Heavily Indebted Poor County Initiative (HIPCI) program dollar for dollar 
of official development assistance to the estimated amount of $40 billion of public and private US official development assistance 
contributions accounted for by the United Nations. 

Table 9: Two Five Year plans for Government Regulated US International Assistance Analyzed % of GDP and GNI



US Int’l Ass in billions


% of GDP


% of GNI




































































E. Gross Domestic Product v. Gross National Income


24. The 1993 System of National Accounts (SNA) calculates the GDP in table 2.4 at 2.222


(1) Gross domestic product (GDP) at market prices = Output + taxes, less subsidies on products – intermediate consumption.

(2) Gross domestic product (GDP) at market prices = Final consumption expenditure/ actual final consumption + changes in inventories + gross fixed capital formation + acquisitions less disposals of valuables + exports of goods and services - imports of goods and services.

(3) Gross National Income à (Per capita GDP – taxes) x population = GNI


25. GDP is a measure of production 1.36.  Levels of GDP or, alternatively, gross national income (GNI) per head in different countries are also used by international organizations to determine eligibility for loans, aid or other funds or to determine the terms or conditions on which such loans, aid or funds are made available.  When the objective is to compare the volumes of goods or services produced or consumed per head, data in national currencies must be converted into a common currency by means of purchasing power parities and not exchange rates 1.38. The level of production is important because it largely determines how much a country can afford to consume and it also affects the level of employment.  The consumption of goods and services, both individually and collectively, is one of the most important factors influencing the welfare of a community, but it is only one of several factors.  There are also others, such as epidemics, natural disasters or wars that can have major negative impacts on welfare, while others, such as scientific discoveries, inventions or simply good weather, may have significant positive impacts.  Total welfare depends on many other factors besides the amounts of goods and services consumed.  Apart from natural events such as epidemics, droughts or floods, welfare also depends on political factors, such as freedom and security and inventions making improvement to the quality of life 1.77.  Obviously, as a measure of production, GDP is not intended to embrace non-economic events, such as political revolutions, wars, natural disasters or epidemics. 1.80 GDP may also be expected to rise in response to natural disasters and wars.   


26. "Economic welfare depends on the psychic enjoyment of life," not just the production of goods.  It is argued the aggregate "compensation of employees" does not distinguish adequately between pre-tax and post-tax wage income, the income of higher corporate officers, and deferred income (employee and employer contributions to social insurance schemes of various kinds) on the other. "Compensation of employees" may also include the value of stock-options received as income by corporate officers. Thus, it is argued, the accounts have to be substantially re-aggregated, to obtain a true picture of income generated and distributed in the economy.  2.178 Neither gross nor net domestic product is a measure of welfare.  No different value judgments are attached to certain goods or services in comparison with others: a given amount of tobacco consumption is equivalent to the same amount of milk consumption; the same is true for education and defence, etc.  GNI is equal to GDP less taxes and subsidies on production and imports, compensation of employees and property income payable to the rest of the world plus the corresponding items receivable from the rest of the world.  Thus GNI at market prices is the sum of gross primary incomes receivable by residents.  It is worth noting that GNI at market prices was called gross national product in the 1953 SNA, and it is commonly denominated GNP.  In contrast to GDP, GNI is not a concept of value added, but a concept of income (primary income). Gross national disposable income is equal to GNI at market prices.  Gross national disposable income measures the income available to the nation for final consumption and gross saving.  National disposable income is the sum of disposable income of all resident.  Fisher, I., 1906. Nature of Capital and Income. A.M. Kelly, New York


27. The divergence in growth rates between the U.S. and the EU since 1997 can be explained almost entirely in terms of differing statistical methods, monetary union and devaluation of the US Dollar where the EU accounts for their aggregate income in the conservative terms of GNI and the US liberally as GDP in the CIA World Fact Book under the guise of GDP and UNDP Human Development Data.  SNA reveals at 1.37 that SNA is the system used for reporting to international or supranational organizations national accounts data that conform to standard, internationally accepted concepts, definitions and classifications.  The resulting data are widely used for international comparisons of the volumes of major aggregates, such as GDP or GDP per head, and also for comparisons of structural statistics, such as ratios of investment, taxes or government expenditures to GDP.  Such comparisons are used by economists, journalists and other analysts to evaluate the performance of one economy against that of other similar economies.  They can influence popular and political judgments about the relative success of economic programs in the same way as developments over time within a single country.  Databases consisting of sets of national accounts for groups of countries can also be used for econometric analyses in which time-series and cross-section data are pooled to provide a broader range of observations for the estimation of functional relationships. Useful as they are as a source of information for anybody in charge with macroeconomic governance tasks, National Accounts can also be misused in the context of governance.  It is hoped US markets will stabilize as the result of making their national predictions on the basis of GNI rather than GDP.  It is hoped that this finding will inform forthcoming reform debates. Kendrick, J. W. (1996) “Introduction and Overview”, in: Kendrick, J. W. (ed), The New System of National Accounts, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, pp. 1-23. Kuznets, S. (1934) “National Income 1929-1932”, US Congress, S. Doc. 124, 73rd Congress, 2nd Session. Hartwig, Jochen. On Misusing National Account Data for Government Purposes.  Swiss Federal Institute of Technology. No. 101 of March 2005

28. Theory regarding the calculating of national accounts is attributed to have been founded by William Petty (1623-1687), whom Marx 
lauded as ‘father of Political Economy, and to some extent the founder of Statistics’, who was the first to provide rough estimates of 
‘national income’ in his Political Arithmetick that appeared in print posthumously in 1690. This remarkable work is considered crucial 
for national accounting up to the present day. Not only does Petty acknowledge that ‘The Labour of the People’ is the source of national 
income, which is echoed in modern ‘Production Accounts’, but he also estimates the division of national income between wages, rents, 
interest, and profit; and opposes this with the disposition of income by giving an estimate of annual domestic consumption expenses.  
For the next two hundred years, progress in national accounting was slow.  François Quesnay’s Tableau économique (of 1766) envisaged 
exchanges in an economy as a circular flow, was a precursor of later Input- Output-Tables that now form a part of National Accounts. 
Also, there was an important contribution coming from Adam Smith who, in The Wealth of Nations (1776), that laid emphasis on 
productive activities that ‘fix themselves’ in commodities rather than services. This concept was later adopted by Karl Marx (although 
the theory of the latter, in principle, does not preclude the provision of services from being productive as long as it is organized along 
capitalist lines and thus yields surplus value) and became the basis of the ‘Material Product System’ of National Accounts prevalent in 
the Soviet Union and other communist countries – even in France, for some time. It was only later under the influence of Alfred 
Marshall that production was fully understood to include the provision of services; and this concept was adopted by the United 
Nations in their recommendations for compiling National Accounts.  


29. Two incidents fostered the final breakthrough of national accounting: first, J. M. Keynes’s General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money (1936) encouraged thinking in terms of macroeconomic aggregates such as consumption and investment demand. Also, Keynes proposed an appropriate delineation for these aggregates to show that production, distribution and appropriation aspects of national income are in fact inextricably interwoven. The final impetus for National Accounts came from the outbreak of World War II. In urgent need of a reliable basis for its war budgets, the British government advised economists at the Central Statistical Office to prepare a set of income and expenditure estimates. “The chief impetus to the development of economic accounts has come from central governments, which probably remain their chief users. By monitoring economic movements, policy-making agencies including the central bank can see if they are on track with respect to national objectives regarding growth, price inflation, the trade balance, unemployment, and so on, and, if not, they can take appropriate actions.”  National Accounts are the main source of information about the state of the economy.  Their data serve as input for growth predictions and business cycle forecasts, which are usually made with the help of intricate econometric models and techniques. Also, medium-term budgeting is typically done within the framework of National Accounts. It has to be stressed, though, that National Accounts synthesize data usually.  If, in a country, fiscal policy follows an activist approach, then it will react to an unsatisfactory growth or business cycle outlook by taking discretionary measures.  Traditional ‘Keynesian’ measures, i.e. deficit spending, are now widely out of fashion, especially in Europe, because it is believed that they irresponsibly add to public debt and thus overburden future generations.  United Nations (1953) A System of National Accounts and Supporting Tables. Studies in Methods, Series F, No. 2, United Nations, New York. United Nations (1968) A System of National Accounts. Studies in Methods, Series F, No. 2, Rev. 3, United Nations, New York.


F. Millennium Development Goals


30. The UN Millennium Development Goals, or MDGs, for 2015, aim to; 1. Reduce by half the number of people who suffer hunger or live in extreme poverty of less than $1 a day. 2. Ensure that all boys and girls complete a full course of primary education. 3. Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education as soon as 2005. 4. Reduce by two thirds the mortality rate of children under the age of five. 5. Reduce by three quarter the maternal mortality ratio. 6. Halt and reverse the spread of AID, malaria and other major diseases. 7. Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programs to reverse loss of environmental resources.  a. Reduce by half the proportion of people without sustainable access to drinking water.  b. Achieve significant improvements in the lives of at least 100-million slum dwellers worldwide by 2020. 8. Develop further an open trading and financial system that is rule-based, predictable and non-discriminatory. a. Includes a commitment to good governance, development and poverty reduction—nationally and internationally. b. Address the least developed countries’ special needs. c. This includes tariff- and quota-free access for their exports; enhanced debt relief for heavily indebted poor countries; cancellation of official bilateral debt; and more generous official development assistance for countries committed to poverty reduction.  d. Address the special needs of landlocked and Small Island developing States.  e. Deal comprehensively with developing countries’ debt problems through national and international measures to make debt sustainable in the long term.  f. In cooperation with the developing countries, develop decent and productive work for youth.  g. In cooperation with pharmaceutical companies, provide access to affordable essential drugs in developing countries.  h. In cooperation with the private sector, make available the benefits of new technologies — especially information and communications technologies


31. Meeting at the UN on 18 September 2000 they signed the United Nations Millennium Declaration A/RES/55/2 a solemn pledge “to free our fellow men, women and children from the abject and dehumanizing conditions of extreme poverty”.  The values and principles that the Goals are founded upon recognition that, in addition to our separate responsibilities to our individual societies, we have a collective responsibility to uphold the principles of human dignity, equality and equity at the global level. As leaders we have a duty therefore to all the world’s people, especially the most vulnerable and, in particular, the children of the world, to whom the future belongs. We reaffirm our commitment to the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations, which have proved timeless and universal. Indeed, their relevance and capacity to inspire have increased, as nations and peoples have become increasingly interconnected and interdependent. We are determined to establish a just and lasting peace all over the world in accordance with the purposes and principles of the Charter. We rededicate ourselves to support all efforts to uphold the sovereign equality of all States, respect for their territorial integrity and political independence, resolution of disputes by peaceful means and in conformity with the principles of justice and international law, the right to self-determination of peoples which remain under colonial domination and foreign occupation, non-interference in the internal affairs of States, respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, respect for the equal rights of all without distinction as to race, sex, language or religion and international cooperation in solving international problems of an economic, social, cultural or humanitarian character.


32. We consider certain fundamental values to be essential to international relations in the twenty-first century. These include: a. Freedom. Men and women have the right to live their lives and raise their children in dignity, free from hunger and from the fear of violence, oppression or injustice. Democratic and participatory governance based on the will of the people best assures these rights. b. Equality. No individual and no nation must be denied the opportunity to benefit from development. The equal rights and opportunities of women and men must be assured. c. Solidarity. Global challenges must be managed in a way that distributes the costs and burdens fairly in accordance with basic principles of equity and social justice. Those who suffer or who benefit least deserve help from those who benefit most. d. Tolerance. Human beings must respect one other, in all their diversity of belief, culture and language. Differences within and between societies should be neither feared nor repressed, but cherished as a precious asset of humanity. A culture of peace and dialogue among all civilizations should be actively promoted. e. Respect for nature. Prudence must be shown in the management of all living species and natural resources, in accordance with the precepts of sustainable development. Only in this way can the immeasurable riches provided to us by nature be preserved and passed on to our descendants. The current unsustainable patterns of production and consumption must be changed in the interest of our future welfare and that of our descendants. f. taking responsibility for the special needs of Africa g. Shared responsibility. Responsibility for managing worldwide economic and social development, as well as threats to international peace and security, must be shared among the nations of the world and should be exercised multilaterally. As the most universal and most representative organization in the world, the United Nations must play the central role.


33. The High Level Segment of the Substantive Session of ECOCOS HA-29-6-05 reports, 843 million people in developing and transition countries continue to be hungry and over a billion live on less than a dollar a day. Developing countries are acknowledging the need to commit more resources for development that benefit the poor. Donor countries are taking steps to increase official development assistance to countries committed to poverty and hunger reduction.  With about 75 percent of the poor and hungry in developing countries living in rural areas, promoting investments in agricultural and rural development, in particular, is fundamental.  Between 1990 and 2001, the proportion of people living in extreme poverty (less than 1 dollar a day) in developing countries declined from 28 to 21 percent, i.e. by 129 million people and is set to decline to 10 percent (622 million people) by 2015.   The 2005 World Summit resolved “to make the goals of full and productive employment and decent work for all a central objective of [their] relevant national and international policies”.  Greater attention, therefore, needs to be paid to decent work, defined as “opportunities for men and women to obtain productive work, in conditions of freedom, equity, security and human dignity”.  Decent work is central not only as a source of income, but also as a condition for people to live a self-determined life, and to participate fully as citizens in their communities. As such it facilitates social integration and social cohesion. It is also essential for the long-term recovery of countries emerging from conflict.  It is important to put the goals of full employment and decent work firmly back into the United Nations development agenda. It demonstrated that there is a solid consensus that in order to achieve the internationally agreed development goals, including the MDGs, employment and decent work needs to be at the centre of economic and social policies. World Leaders also concluded at the Summit that in many parts of the world the goals could not be achieved by the 2015 deadline under the prevailing employment and labour market condition.


G. Achieving the internationally agreed development goals


34. Achieving the internationally agreed development goals, including those contained in the Millennium Declaration as implementing the outcomes of the major United Nations conferences and summits: Progress made, challenges and opportunities, was the theme for the 2005 .  This accomplishment involves lifting 843 million people in developing and transition countries who continue to be hungry and over a billion live on less than a dollar a day, out of poverty. Developing countries are acknowledging the need to commit more resources for development that benefit the poor. Donor countries are taking steps to increase official development assistance to countries committed to poverty and hunger reduction.  With about 75 percent of the poor and hungry in developing countries living in rural areas, promoting investments in agricultural and rural development, in particular, is fundamental.  We must congratulate the European Union's collective commitment to the 0.7% ODA target and timetable for its implementation. We must simultaneously welcome the agreement of the G-8 Finance Ministers to cancel the debt of the poorest countries.  Solutions for global underdevelopment will have to be comprehensive and coherently encompassing adequate external financing for development, larger and growing trade opportunities and good global governance. Such comprehensiveness and coherent solutions can be evolved only within the framework of the United Nations, and its economic and social arm - The Economic and Social Council.


35 According to the mid-year update of the World Economic Situation and Prospects 2005, Jose Antonio Ocampo Under Secretary General for DESA reported, the world economy has behaved broadly in line with what we projected in January. Global economic growth has slowed, with gross world product (GWP) expected to expand at a rate of 3 1/4 per cent in 2005 and 3 1/2 per cent in 2006, following 4.1 per cent in 2004.  The anticipated growth of the world economy for 2004-2006 is not only the strongest for the past few years but is unusually widespread among developing countries and economies in transition. Even with a deceleration, developing countries as a group are expected to grow at a rate approaching 6 per cent in 2005-2006, while the economies in transition will remain above 5 per cent. The developing countries, in particular, are showing greater resilience than in the past to the deceleration in economic growth in the developed world; growth in Africa, for example, is expected to be higher in 2005-2006 than in 2004.  South Asia has joined East Asia in growing in the range of 6-7 per cent while Africa and Latin America are expected to exceed 5 and 4 per cent respectively in 2005-2006. Among sub-groupings, the least developed, the landlocked and the sub-Saharan African countries (excluding Nigeria and South Africa) are all expected to average growth approaching 6 per cent over the these two years. Looking back, output per capita rose by more than 3 per cent in 2004 in almost half the developing countries and these countries accounted for over 80 per cent of the developing world’s population.


36. The net transfer of financial resources from developing countries continues to increase –from over $270 billion in 2003 to a record of over $350 billion in 2004. Foreign direct investment (FDI) totaled $165.5 billion, up by $13.7 billion in 2004. The present period of robust global growth opens a window of opportunity for accelerating the implementation of the global development agenda set at the global conferences of the 1990s and at the Millennium Summit in 2000.  International trade grew by some 11 per cent in 2004 and is forecast to increase by a further 8 per cent in 2005. In the cases of both oil and non-oil commodities, prices remain below their long-term averages and the recent improvements have been partially offset by the depreciation of the United States dollar.  Admittedly, this net transfer overwhelmingly reflects a buildup of foreign exchange reserves by a number of countries with trade surpluses rather than the capital outflows and debt service payments that characterized the 1980s and some of the 1990s.  At the present time, a greater risk of a sudden and disruptive shock to the world economy seems likely to stem from the large and widening global imbalances: the current account deficit of the United States, not including the federal deficit, is expected to rise to over $700 billion in 2005 and to remain in that range in 2006.  Taking the federal deficit into consideration the current account deficit of the US has been over $1 trillion in 2005 and 2006.  Import substitution and fiscal responsibility policies have helped to make a combined US account deficit less than $1 trillion possible this FY 2007, for the first time since 2004.  The US dollar has depreciated vis-à-vis other major currencies over the past few years. The most stunning growth rate has come from China where people power is competitive with the United States economy for largest percentage of the global GDP.  Conditions for achieving better economic performance in Sub-Saharan Africa are also improving: 12 African countries are currently experiencing growth spurts above the trends for the region - with average GDP growth over the last decade of 5.5 percent or more. 


37. The goal to halve poverty by 2015 will likely be met at the global level, but not in Sub- Saharan Africa unless progress there can be accelerated quickly.  Between 1990 and 2001, the proportion of people living in extreme poverty (less than 1 dollar a day) in developing countries declined from 28 to 21 percent, i.e. by 129 million people and is set to decline to 10 percent (622 million people) by 2015.  Poverty reduction requires a twin-track approach which combines, ideally within the same communities, (a) direct interventions and social investments to address the immediate needs of poor and hungry (social safety nets, conditional or unconditional cash transfers, health interventions, food and nutrition programmes) with (b) long-term development programmes to enhance the performance of the productive sectors (especially to promote agriculture and rural development), create employment and increase the value of the assets held by the poor (physical, human, financial). Strong local health systems are needed to provide universal access to primary health care, including sexual and reproductive services. Furthermore, resources to tackle major diseases such as HIV/AIDS, TB, and malaria going to new global partnerships, such as the Global Fund, need to work as allies in strengthening broad-based health systems.  In many countries, especially in Africa, the shortage of human resources is reaching crisis proportions. Stocks of health workers are being depleted as they themselves fall victim to the diseases they are attempting to treat, such as HIV/AIDS.  More education and training is urgently needed. 


38. The millennium project advises targeting the following areas,


-Promoting the rule of law. Legal and administrative systems require a properly resourced and adequately staff legislature, judiciary and executive branch of government.

- Promoting human rights. The goals reflect human rights assessments that checks MDG based strategies for their national commitment to human rights.

- Promoting accountable and efficient public administration. Better governance depends on the systems of political and bureaucratic accountability, transparency and participation, especially by poor people.

- Promoting sound economic policies. Government actions – such as macroeconomic management, proper investments in infrastructure, and corruption-free delivery of public services – are keys to private sector development, as outlined in the report of the Commission on Private Sector Development and World Development Report 2005.

- Supporting civil society. Governments have a special responsibility to provide civil society with political freedom to express its views, a policy voice to participate in the planning and review and of MDG-based strategies, and institutional space to support the implementation of public investment strategies.


39. The international community has committed and re-committed itself to the promotion of a fully literate world through quality universal primary education and quality adult literacy provision through formal and non formal education for over fifty years. The International Conference on Human Rights, (Teheran on 13 May 1968) in its Proclamation of Teheran stated: ‘The existence of over seven hundred million illiterates throughout the world is an enormous obstacle to all efforts at realizing the aims and purposes of the Charter of the United Nations and the provision of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. International action aimed at eradicating illiteracy from the face of the earth and the promotion of education at all levels requires urgent attention. According to the estimates published by the EFA Global Monitoring Report, 2005, there are nearly 800 million adult illiterates in the world (adult defined as 15 or over), representing 18% of the adult population according to the High Level Segment of the Substantive Session of ECOSOC HA-29-6-05 


H. Sustaining Full and Productive Employment


40. Creating an environment at the national and international levels conducive to generating full and productive employment and decent work for all, and its impact on sustainable development was the theme for the High-level Segment of 3 – 5 July 2006.  The world as a whole is on track to meet the target of cutting in half the proportion of people living on a dollar a day or less by 2015. The starting date for all of this was 1990. At that time, 28% of the world lived on a dollar a day or less. Today that has dropped to 19%. Now, the first thing to say about this is that it is significantly driven by the extraordinary success in southern and eastern Asia and we’ve done less well in Latin America where progress has only been from 11 down to 9%. And of course, as I think you all know, in Sub-Saharan Africa poverty of this kind remains stubbornly stuck at 44%, although even there, there is some real evidence now that improved economic performance, along with additional donor assistance and debt relief, could be laying the groundwork to start making significant improvements there too.  On some other goals, really good news to report as well. There are signs that we might get to the goal of universal primary education for every boy and girl. Eighty-six percent of children in the developing world are now enrolled in primary schools. Real progress too with clean drinking water where the statistics has also continued to rise, jumping to 80% in 2004 from 71% in 1990. But again, lots of major regional differences. Women’s role in political participation, which we see as critical if we are really to get at family poverty and have people who are willing to speak for it and hold governments accountable for it elected to office. We now have women holding 17% of parliamentary seats globally. In 20 countries, more than 30% of seats are held by women. And that is striking in some post-conflict countries, which have used the phenomenon of new constitutions and the lessons of conflict to really try and drive up the level of seats held by women. Afghanistan now has 27% of its parliamentary seats held by women and Iraq 25%. The number of people receiving antiretroviral drugs in developing countries has increased fivefold over the last four years, from 2001 to 2005, from 240,000 to 1.3 million people.


41. The UN Economic and Social Survey was the main report of the substantive session of ECOSOC in 2006.  The Statement of Mr. Jose Antonio Ocampo Under Secretary General of Economic and Social Affairs to the High Level Policy Dialogue of ECOSOC in Geneva 3 July 2006 is that the world economy is performing well this year.  The rapid and fairly broad growth of the developing countries— undoubtedly the most positive global economic trend in recent years—persists.  In 2006, the developing world will again, as in the two previous years, register a growth rate of more than 6.0 per cent, comparing favourably with 2.7 per cent for the industrialized world. The LDCs in particular will reach an unprecedented rate of over 7 per cent.  The solid growth figures of developing countries reflect a very favourable international economic environment.  As is well known, some of the major risks are associated with the global imbalances, particularly the high current account deficit of the United States, which is expected to reach over $900 billion in 2006. This continues to create the possibility of a sudden and sharp disorderly adjustment of global imbalances, especially through a large devaluation of the dollar, or a significant slowdown of the US economy, both of which would have adverse effects on the world economy.


42. During the so-called golden age of 1950-1973, most developing regions experienced rapid economic growth. In contrast, the final two decades of the twentieth century brought a worrisomely large number of “growth collapses”, with only a few developing economies able to sustain fast rates of growth.  The four point plan for continuing development in developing countries since the Millennium Declaration are: One, fostering active trade and production sector policies to encourage the structural transformation of developing country economies, aimed at encouraging the diversification of production sector structures, creating strong domestic linkages among production activities, and upgrading technologies. International rules should be reviewed in this light, while avoiding at the same time some mistakes of past industrial policies. Two, open up more space for counter-cyclical macroeconomic policies, striking a better balance between fiscal and monetary prudence and flexibility, and making price stability less an objective in itself than an intermediate goal of economic growth and employment creation. The effectiveness of these domestic policy efforts will also require policy interventions at the international level to dampen financial volatility. Three, ensuring sustained levels of public spending to make the necessary investments in infrastructure and human capital. This means that additional fiscal space needs to be created through increased efficiency of public expenditures, through improved governance and strengthening of the tax base and, for the poorest countries, through additional official development assistance (ODA). Four, promoting gradual, country-specific and home-made institutional reforms. International cooperation can help in this regard by supporting such gradual domestic processes, by fully respecting the principle of ownership of domestic policies and institutions and, particularly, by avoiding the proliferation of institutional conditionality.


43. After the “golden age”, a dual pattern of divergence emerged.  In the 1960s and 1970s, nearly 50 developing countries had had sustained growth, but only 20 thereafter.  There was a distinct downturn in international development through the 1980s.  Sustained growth occurred more often again in the 1990s, but at levels far below those of the golden age.  Growth successes and collapses have clustered in specific time periods.  The major general downturn took place around 1980.  The oil shock of 1973 had disturbed the normal functioning of the economies of developed countries, generating inflation and recession, and had important effects on developing countries as well.  The pace at which the gap widened had slowed down during the quarter-century that followed the Second World War (1950-1973) and during this period several regions (Eastern and Central Europe and Asia) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics managed to catch up in modest terms with the developed countries. As noted above, this period is sometimes also referred to as the golden age, since rapid growth took place in a large number of countries and regions across the world.  During this period, all regions recorded an average GDP per capita growth rate of at least 2 per cent (see lowest subdivision of India was the only large developing country showing slower growth, with a rate of 1.4 per cent per annum. The fastest-growing economy was Japan, with an impressive 8.1 per cent GDP per capita growth rate, followed by Eastern Europe.  Strong and widespread developing-country growth ended around 1980. 


44. Rising inequality between countries is the result of differences in economic performance over several decades. Broadly speaking, the income gap between the industrialized economies and developing countries was already very high in 1960 and has continued to widen since then. At the same time, however, the growth experiences among the developing countries have differed greatly. Widening income among developing countries became prominent after 1980 as the result in part of a limited number of success stories of sustained economic growth, most of them in East Asia. During the past 25 years, the number of cases of growth collapses has increased, whereas the frequency of cases of successful growth has diminished. In the 1960s and 1970s, nearly 50 out of a sample of 106 developing countries had experienced one or more prolonged episodes of high and sustained per capita income growth of more than 2 per cent per year.  Since 1980, however, there are only 20 developing countries that have enjoyed periods of sustained growth. In contrast, no less than 40 developing countries suffered growth collapses, that is to say, periods of five years or longer during which there had been no growth or a decline in per capita income. Such growth failures have been most frequent among the least developed countries and countries in sub- Saharan Africa. Developing countries have, of course, done well very recently. Indeed, current trends indicate that the period 2004-2006 will show fairly widespread growth in developing countries, a pattern not seen since the late 1960s and early 1970s. During these three years, per capita income of developing countries will grow on average at a rate of more than 4 per cent per year and the least developed countries will perform even better.


45. Women’s participation in the labour force has increased gradually over the last ten years, globally, this increase has been very slight – 0.5 percent (from 51.7 percent in 1995 to 52.2 percent in 2005). Despite the slight decrease of male participation (1.3 percentage points in 2005 to 80.8 percent), the gap between adult women and men is still wide: 28.6 percent in 2005.  Of roughly 520 million working people living in extreme poverty (earning less than $1 a day), an estimated 60 per cent are women.  Most of the world’s migrants – estimated at 191 million in 2005- are migrant workers – those who migrate for employment- and their families. In 2000 economically active migrants were estimated to number some 81 million, and with their families accounted for almost 90 percent of total international migrants. Refugees and asylum-seekers account for about 10 per cent of migrants.  The World Bank estimates total remittances of about $250 billion if informal flows are also included.  Remittances have increased from $31 to $170 billion between 1990 and 2005, and by 73 per cent between 2001 and 2005. Recorded remittances are now more than double the level of ODA. For some countries migrants’ remittances constitute the main source of foreign exchange.  From 1995 to 2005, there has been a drop in agriculture as a share of total employment from around 44.4 per cent to 40.1 per cent and a concomitant increase in services from 34.5 per cent to 38.9 per cent. Industrial employment held steady over the time period at 21 per cent.  According to the ILO's Global Employment Trend Brief , at the end of 2005, the world’s unemployment rate stood at 6.3 per cent, unchanged from the previous year and 0.3 percentage points higher than a decade earlier.  The world work force is estimated at 2.8 billion.  In 2005 the number of unemployed worldwide reached new heights of nearly 192 million people and underemployment remains pervasive.  Some 520 million working women and men are unable to earn enough to lift themselves and their families above the one dollar a day or less per person extreme poverty line.  More than twice that amount, 1.4 billion earns $2 a day or less– the same number as ten years ago and half of the global labor force.  Moreover, the number of unemployed worldwide, currently, at about 192 million, climbed to new heights in 2005.


I. International Tax Administration


46. On 19 September 2006 Chapter XII International Trusteeship System Arts. 75-85  of the UN Charter was amended as ordered in paragraph 177 of the Draft Outcome Document 13 September 2005 of the World Summit to establish an international system of social security taxation that appears on the pay-stubs of workers and beneficiaries worldwide.  To achieve this objective the word taxation or social security is inserted wherever trusteeship is mentioned.  Cross referencing has been redone.  The categories are changed in Art. 77 to recognized the obligations of least developed countries, middle income developing nations and donor nations.  Correlates taxation to the administration of social security benefits and mandates the rate of 0.7% of the GDP or 1% of the GNI for wealthy nations.  Administration shall occur on the basis of the national poverty line.  The objective of perfecting this tax administration is to promote the political, economic, social, and educational advancement of the inhabitants of the Member States.


Article 75

The United Nations shall establish under its authority an international social security taxation system for the administration and supervision of such territories as may be placed there-under by subsequent individual agreements. These territories are hereinafter referred to as Member States.


Article 76

The basic objectives of the taxation system, in accordance with the Purposes of the United Nations laid down in Article 1 of the present Charter, shall be:

a. to further international peace and security;                                                                                                              

b. to promote the political, economic, social, and educational advancement of the inhabitants of the Member States, and their progressive development towards self-government or independence as may be appropriate to the particular circumstances of each territory and its peoples and the freely expressed wishes of the peoples concerned, and as may be provided by the terms of each social security agreement;

c. to encourage respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion, and to encourage recognition of the interdependence of the peoples of the world; and

d. to ensure equal treatment in social, economic, and commercial matters for all Members of the United Nations and their nationals, and also equal treatment for the latter in the administration of social security.


Article 77

  1. The taxation system shall apply to such territories in the following categories as may be placed there-under by means of social security agreements:

a. least developed countries who are entitled to the largest per capita benefit payment;

b. middle income developing nations who are exempt from either taxation or benefit but fertile for investment;

c. donor nations responsible for making annual contributions to the international social security system.

  1. It will be a matter for subsequent agreement as to which Member States in the foregoing categories will fulfill their obligations to give money to the poor.


Article 78

The taxation system shall apply to all territories and people who have become Members of the United Nations, relationship among whom shall be based on respect for the principle of sovereign equality.  The UN taxation system will be a social security tax on the pay-stub of workers and social security administration in the books of the treasuries of least developed countries.


Article 79

The terms of taxation for each territory to be placed under the social security system, including any alteration or amendment, shall be agreed upon by the states directly concerned, taking into consideration the donor classification in Art. 77(1)(c) and the mandate to wealthy Member Nations for contributions totaling 0.7% of GDP or 1% of GNI.


Article 80

  1. Except as may be agreed upon in individual taxation agreements, made under Articles 77(1)(c), 79, and 81, placing each wealthy territory under the taxation system, without altering in any manner the rights whatsoever of any states or any peoples or the terms of existing international instruments to which Members of the United Nations may respectively be parties.
  2. Paragraph 1 of this Article shall not be interpreted as giving grounds for delay or postponement of the negotiation and conclusion of agreements for placing least developed nations and other needy territories under the social security system as provided for in Article 77(1)(a).

Article 81

The taxation agreement shall in each case include the terms under which the wealthy territory will be collected and designate the authority which will exercise the collection of taxation of the developed nation. Such authority, hereinafter called the tax authority, may be one or more states or the Organization itself.


Article 82

There may be designated, in any administrative agreement, a regional area which may include part or all or a collection of impoverished territories to which the social security agreement for the payment of  benefits to poor individuals applies on the basis of the national poverty line.

Article 83

  1. All functions of the United Nations relating to administrative areas, including the approval of the terms of social security agreements and of their alteration or amendment shall be exercised by the General Assembly.
  2. The basic objective in Article 76 shall be applicable to the people of each region.
  3. The General Assembly shall, subject to the provisions of the trusteeship agreements and without prejudice to security considerations, avail itself of the assistance of the Security Council to perform those functions of the United Nations under the taxation system relating to political, economic, social, and educational matters in strategic areas.


Article 84

It shall be the duty of the administering authority to ensure that the Member State shall play its part in the maintenance of international social security. To this end the administering authority may make use of volunteer forces, facilities, and assistance from the territory in carrying out the obligations to poor individuals in this social security tax undertaken in this regard by the administering authority.


Article 85

  1. The functions of the United Nations with regard to taxation agreements for all areas not designated as regional, including the approval of the terms of the taxation agreements, the apportionment of benefits in the commonwealth, and of their alteration or amendment, shall be exercised by the General Assembly.
  2. The Committee on Contributions, operating under the authority of the General Assembly shall assist the General Assembly in carrying out these functions.


J. Human Rights Council


47. On 16 September Chapter XIII of the UN Charter Arts 86-91 Trusteeship Council was amended for the Human Rights Council as ordered in the Outcome Document of the 2005 World Summit A/59/HLPM/CRP.1/Rev.1 of 22 September 2005 and established in General Assembly Resolution A/60/251 Human Rights Council of 3 April 2006.  The Council shall comprise between 30 and 50 members, each serving for a period of three years, to be elected directly by the General Assembly, by a two-thirds majority. The Council will be primarily responsible for promoting universal respect for and observance and protection of all human rights and fundamental freedoms for all, without distinction of any kind and in a fair and equal manner, recognizing their indivisible, inalienable and interrelated culture. 



Article 86

1. The Human Rights Council shall comprise between 30 and 50 members, each serving for a period of three years, to be elected directly by the General Assembly, by a two thirds majority. In establishing the membership of the Council, due regard shall be given to the principle of equitable geographical distribution and the contribution of Member States to the promotion and protection of human rights;


2. Those elected to the Council should undertake to abide by human rights standards in their respect for and protection and promotion of human rights, and will be evaluated during their term of membership under the review mechanism, unless they have been evaluated shortly before the start of their term in the Council.



Article 87

The Council will be the organ primarily responsible for promoting universal respect for and observance and protection of all human rights and fundamental freedoms for all, without distinction of any kind and in a fair and equal manner, recognizing their indivisible, inalienable and interrelated culture.  The treaty bodies the Council reviews are:

a. High Commissioner of Human Rights

b. Council on Human Rights

c.  Committee on Migrant Workers

d.  Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

e.  Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women

f.   Committee on the Rights of the Child

g.  Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination

h.  Committee against Torture


Article 88

The Council will be:

1. The forum for dialogue on thematic issues relating to all human rights and fundamental freedoms and make recommendations to the General Assembly for the further development of international law in the field of human rights;

2. To promote international cooperation to enhance the abilities of Member States to implement human rights commitments, including international norms and standards, and the provision of assistance by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights to Member States, at their request, through programmes of advisory services, technical cooperation and capacity-building;

3. Promote effective coordination and the mainstreaming of human rights within the United Nations system, including by making policy recommendations to the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council and other United Nations bodies. The Council should also work in close cooperation with regional organizations in the field of human rights;

4. Evaluate the fulfillment by all States of all their human rights obligations, in particular under the Charter and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. This procedure will not duplicate the reporting procedures being carried out under the human rights treaties;

5. Address any matters or situations related to the promotion and protection of human rights, including urgent human rights situations, and make recommendations thereon to the Member States and provide policy recommendations to the United Nations system and petitioners.



Article 89

  1. Each member of the Council shall have one vote. 
  2. Decisions of the Council shall be made by a majority of the members present and voting.           


Article 90

  1. The Council shall adopt its own rules of procedure, including the method of selecting its High Commissioner.
  2. The Council shall meet as required in accordance with its rules, which shall include provision for the convening of meetings on the request of a majority of its members.


Article 91

1. The Council shall submit an annual report to the General Assembly.

2. The Council shall, when appropriate, avail itself of the assistance of the Economic and Social Council and of the specialized agencies in regard to matters with which they are respectively concerned. 

3. The arrangements made by the Economic and Social Council for consultations with non-governmental organizations under Article 71 of the Charter shall apply to the Council.


K. Developing Democracy


48. For democracy to take root in our world government, the Secretary General of and the national ambassadors to the UN should be elected in regular secret ballot election in all nations so that everyone over the age of 18 could participate.  It would be hoped that at least 1 billion people, 15% of the world population, would vote in these international elections.  International parliaments shall assure that voting is fair.  States must agree to vote on roughly the same day on translations of the same ballot printed by the UN General Assembly.  The ballot shall ensure informational equality by adopting reasonable measures to deal with the perception of unfairness created when some voters have general access to information that is denied to others.  Care must be taken not to usurp Parliament’s role in determining the rules of the electoral game most appropriate for the nation as a whole.  The Ambassadors to the UN should lobby their Parliaments to get the Secretary General on a sufficient number of national ballots by 2020 to full.  The rule of law with which we protect the integrity of our global democracy must be guided by the values and principles essential to a free and equal society - respect for the inherent dignity of the human person, commitment to social justice and equality, accommodation of a wide variety of beliefs, respect for cultural and group identity, race and faith in social and political institutions which enhance the participation of individuals and groups in society.


49. While some matter can be proved with empirical or mathematical precision, such as when the number of registered voters in the majority of member states is sufficient for free and fair international elections to be held for the Secretary of the United Nations (SUN), others involving philosophical, political and social considerations, such as why it is unconscionable to permit the Secretary General of the UN to run for general election unless he adopted the civilian title, cannot.  To achieve a higher level of perfection than the Millennium Development Goals for 2015, the UN Charter itself will need to be amended.  The International Tax Administration and Human Rights Council that have already been drafted are insufficient to meet the aesthetic ideals of a democracy that a self determinant rule of law would permit on the ballot.  To do the UN Charter justice is a job for the next decade.  The President of the UN General Assembly must continue the Charter Amendments as requested in the Draft Outcome Document of  the World Summit 13 September 2005 – for revamping the trusteeship system, establishing a human rights council.  The rule of law upon which this international political campaign for international democracy is, “the UN should employ general elections, not generals”. 


50. The Inter-American Democratic Charter ratified (9/11/2001) reaffirms the principle of representative democracy for good governance.  The effective exercise of representative democracy is the basis for the rule of law and of the constitutional regimes of the member states of the Organization of American States. Representative democracy is strengthened and deepened by permanent, ethical, and responsible participation of the citizenry within a legal framework conforming to the respective constitutional order.  The peoples of the Americas have a right to democracy and their governments have an obligation to promote and defend it. The spiritual unity of the continent is based on respect for the cultural values of the American countries and requires their close cooperation for the high purposes of civilization. The education of peoples should be directed toward justice, freedom, and peace. Social justice and social security are bases of lasting peace. 


51. The UN Charter imbues the UN with the power to review the Charter, propose and ratify amendments the document that would benefit democracy with 2/3 vote of the Parliamentary Assembly under Arts. 108 & 109 of Chapter XVIII of the UN Charter.  The UN Charter was drafted at the end of WWII, the bloodiest conflict in history.  The international system is far from perfect.  The general principles of law are sound.  The Charter dictates that use of force is fundamentally wrong however remains fascinated by a secretary general and general assembly.  The principle of non use of force is also known as the non aggression principle.  Under Art. 2(4) of Chapter I all Members shall refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any other State, or in any other manner inconsistent with the Purposes of the UN.  Under Art. 51 of Chapter VII  nothing shall impair the right of individual or collective self defense.  It is a well established principle that the use of force is acceptable only when that use of force was directly and proportionally aimed against an armed attack. 


52. Members of the United Nations also agree that their policy in respect of the territories to which this Chapter applies, no less than in respect of their metropolitan areas, must be based on the general principle of good-neighborliness, due account being taken of the interests and well-being of the rest of the world, in social, economic, and commercial matters under Art.74 of the Chapter XI.  Article 55 of Chapter IX on International Economic and Social Co-operation was written, with a view to the creation of conditions of stability and well-being which are necessary for peaceful and friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples, the United Nations shall promote:  a. higher standards of living, full employment, and conditions of economic and social progress and development; b. solutions of international economic, social, health, and related problems; and international cultural and educational cooperation; and c. universal respect for, and observance of, human rights and fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion.


53. Art.73 of the Chapter XI extends a certain paternalism towards non self governing territories that is timeless. Members of the United Nations which have or assume responsibilities for the administration of territories whose peoples have not yet attained a full measure of self-government recognize the principle that the interests of the inhabitants of these territories are paramount, to this end: a. to ensure, with due respect for the culture of the peoples concerned, their political, economic, social, and educational advancement, their just treatment, and their protection against abuses;

b. to develop self-government, to take due account of the political aspirations of the peoples, and to assist them in the progressive development of their free political institutions, according to the particular circumstances of each territory and its peoples and their varying stages of advancement;

c. to further international peace and security;

d. to promote constructive measures of development, to encourage research, and to co-operate with one another and, when and where appropriate, with specialized international bodies with a view to the practical achievement of the social, economic, and scientific purposes; and

e. to transmit this petition regularly to the Secretary of the United Nations for information purposes, subject to such limitation as security and constitutional considerations may require, statistical and other information of a technical nature relating to economic, social, and educational conditions.

f. to take respective responsible for those territories to which the amendments to Chapter XII: International Tax Administration and XIII: Human Rights Council, explained in Part C and D of this essay, apply. 


54. If UN reforms are to succeed the international government will need to evolve into a parliamentary democracy led by a popularly elected Secretary of the UN.  To do all this numerous Charter amendments are needed.  References and cross references to the Trusteeship Council, General Assembly and the Secretary General will need to be removed and updated throughout the UN Charter.  Chapter IV should be amended from the “General Assembly” to “Parliamentary Assembly”.  Care must be taken to amend Chapter XV: Secretariat so that all references in the entire Charter are changed from the “Secretary General” to just “Secretary” with a note that he or she is the highest ranking general in the UN Peacekeeping forces. Provisions for international elections should be made in Article 97 of Chapter XV as follows,


“The Secretariat shall comprise a Secretary of the United Nations and such staff as the Organization may require. The Secretary shall be elected by the general public in secret ballot from amongst no less than two candidates nominated by the Parliamentary Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council. The Secretary shall be the chief administrative officer of the Organization and top general of its Peacekeeping Force”. 


Sanders, Tony J. Hospitals & Asylums. Roster of the United Nations of HA-20-3-07 in introduction to the Official Development Atlas on the States of the United Nations of HA-20-3-06. 250 pgs.