Hospitals & Asylums 








Alcohol, Tobacco and Marijuana (ATM) or Bust?: Racketeering Reversal HA-30-1-14


By Anthony J. Sanders


The Grand Jury Indictment of Bob and Maureen McDonnel by the Eastern District of Virginia on January 21, 2014 violently interferes with and falsely impersonates a personal loan from J.W., President of Star Scientific, whose products Anatabloc® and CigRx® had received a warning letter from the F.D.A. on December 24, and 2013.  Followed shortly thereafter on January 24, 2014 by the hanging death of Jesse Ryan Loskarn, 35, former chief of staff to U.S. Sen. Lamar Alexander of Tennessee, who was facing child pornography charges due to an external drive with more than 200 images illegally seized by the U.S. postal service (USPS) from his dwelling house in violation of 39USC(I)(119)§603(3), precipitating a stock market crash.  USPS owes the Loskarn estate $500 to authorize recovery of civil damages under 18USC(119)§2520 for the hanging death that inadvertently occurred as a consequence to the illegal search of a dwelling house in violation of 39USC(I)(6)§603(3) and should repeal or independently strike down the entire Congressionally pre-authorized USPS burglary profession from Section 603 to 606 of Title 39.  Jittery investors worldwide, forewarned of a looming stock market crash, quickly transferred their money from the stock market to the bond market, at the first sign of unrest.  The recent stock market boom can be temporally attributed to the free association between HA and USPS and its bust to both a sudden lack of confidence in USPS statutory blanket search and seizure pre-authorization and a well-founded fear of having their private business dealings federally prosecuted without any reason other than the U.S. Attorney and Department of Justice have conspired once again to pin their disciplinary record to victimize the soap opera like stars of their illegally intercepted wire fraud violently interfering with commercial matters in flagrant violation of 18USC(I)(95)1951.  The Eastern District of Virginia seems to be recriminating against a New Year's day order to drop their self-incriminating racketeering charges against Megavideo et al.  Due process requires the "racketeering" prosecutors interfering with commerce in Megavideo, McDonnel, Blagojevich and similar cases, who do not drop the charges, to be included in the "force reduction" notices terminating the police finance functions of the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) and Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (ATF) under 5USCIIIB(35)I§3502(d).  More than 50% of federal prisoners are harmless drug offenders and over 60% of those marijuana.  Legal marijuana is so much better for the health than alcohol and medical marijuana that the teams playing in the Superbowl XLVIII (2014), the Seattle Seahawks and Denver Broncos, are Washington and Colorado, the only two states to have legalized marijuana.  To realize the goodness of the President's inequality propaganda seizing the market in response to debt slavery allegations against India, it has previously been found that pardoning Rod Blagojevich as directed by, The Bar Between Wisdom and Wealth: Pardon Rod Blagojevich, is necessary for Obama to get federal government right, Blagojevich's "federal bailout" is valued at more than $100 billion in annual savings to the federal budget.  7th Cir. Judge Posner is posed with the solution of Martial's law so that it is not plagiarism to free a slave under 18USC§205(d)(1) but it is plagiarism to enslave a free person (a)(1), in the Blagojevich case of the local practice of incarcerating their former Governors on hypocritical racketeering charges.  These racketeering federal prosecutors, seem to project their dissatisfaction with their drug racketeering career at equally innocent, but not so soft, public figures in the beginning of the New Year before they break their resolution and go back to the easy life of drug slavery.  The Attorney General must either remove Marijuana from the Controlled Substances Act (CSA) failing to abolish the DEA and ATF or include Alcohol and Tobacco as Schedule II drugs and Marijuana as Schedule III while abolishing the DEA and ATF police functions and transferring medical and social functions to an FDA Center for Alcohol, Tobacco and Marijuana (ATM) under 5USCIIIB(35)I§3503(a). 


1. Unlawful Execution of Postal Search in the Jesse Ryan Loskarn Child Porn Case


2. Interference with a Personal Loan between Bob and Maureen McDonnel and J.W. President of Star Scientific


3. Rescheduling Alcohol (II), Tobacco (II) and Marijuana (III) in, or Removing Marijuana from the Schedules of the CSA


4. A Congressional Holiday against Torture with Pay




Alexander, Lamar (U.S. Sen.-Tenn.). Repealing Sec. 603-606. Title 39 Postal Service. United States Code

Sanders, Tony J. Sec. 307c Reclassifying Alcohol, Tobacco and Marijuana in the Controlled Substances Act (CSA). Drug Regulation. Book 8. 12th Draft. Hospitals & Asylums HA-25-1-14




Amices Brief. Paroline v. Amy Unknown. U.S. 5th Cir. No. 12-856120 November, 2013 Reported by Wong, Peter. Oregon Law Students Get Their Day in Supreme Court: Brief Turns to International Law In Support of Restitution for Victims of Child Sexual Abuse. USA Today. 19 January 2014 

Blakely v. Washington No. 02-1632 of June 24, 2004

McDonald v. United States, 335 U.S. 451 (1948)

Rakas v. Illinois 439U.S.128 (1978)

Sanders, Tony J. Wikileaks: Honorable Discharge of Bradley Manning HA-31-1-12; Snowden ex. rel. v. President Obama; National Security Administration (NSA) HA-6-1-14

U.S. v. Bob and Maureen McDonnell. Eastern District of Virginia. Grand Jury Indictment. No. 3:14cr12 Richmond, Virginia. January 2014. Reported by Alman, Ashley. Bob McDonnel, Wife Indicted on Federal Corruption Charges. Huffington Post. 21 January 2014  

U.S .v. Megavideo; Kim Dotcom et al. Eastern District of Virginia. Grand Jury Indictment. No. 1:12 CR3 Alexandria, Virginia. January 5, 2012 as reported by Sanders, Tony J. Lame Duck Speak HA-1-1-14

Whitney v. California, 274 U.S. 357 (1927)

Zagel, James B.J. U.S. v. Rod Blagojevich et al. Northern District of Illinois No. 08 CR 888 February 2008. Holderman, James F. C.J. Motion to Disclose Intercepted Communications. 594 F.Supp.2d 993 (2009), Denial of Appeal en banc 614 F.3d 287 (2010),  Exclusion of Jurors 612 F. 3d 558 (2010) as reported by Sanders, Tony J. The Bar Between Wisdom and Wealth: Pardon Rod Blagojevich. Hospitals & Asylums HA-19-1-13 




Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment of 1984.   

Guidelines on the Role of Prosecutors of 7 September 1990

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights of 23 March 1976




Activities of Officers and Employees in Claims Against and Other Matters Affecting Government 18USC§205

Conditions to Allowance in the Case of Alcohol and Tobacco Tax 26USC(F)(65)(B)§6423, Cigar Tax Rates 27CFR(I)(40)(C)§40.21, Pipe Tobacco and Roll-Your-Own Tobacco Tax Rates and Classification 27CFR(I)(40)(C)§40.25a

Controlled Substances Act (CSA). Authority and Criteria for Classification of Substances 21USC(13)§ 811, Schedules of Controlled Substances 21USC(13)§812

Exclusion of jurors on account of race, color or former condition of servitude 18USC(13)§243

Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure Rule 41 (e)

First Amendment Privacy Protection 42USC(21A)2000aa

Fraud and False Statements 18USC§1001

Mail and wire fraud statutes, 18 U.S.C. §§ 1341, 1343, 1346, and 1349

Racketeering; Interference with commerce with threats and violence 18USC(I)(95)1951, Attempts and conspiracies 18UC§1962  

Recovery of civil damages authorized 18USC(119)§2520

Retention Preference. Order of Retention 5USCIIIB(35)I§3502, Transfer of Functions 5USCIIIB(35)§3503

Searches Authorized 39USC(I)(6)§603

Torture 18USC(113C)§2340A 




Illinois Governors In Prison: 4 Of State's Last 7 Governors Were Convicted, Imprisoned. Associated Press. January 30, 2013

Gilligan, James, M.D. Why Some Politicians are More Dangerous than Others. Polity Press. Malden, Massachusetts. 2011

Marijuana the SuperBowl Storyline that Won't Go Away. Fox Sports. January 28, 2014

Posner, Richard A. The Little Book of Plagiarism. Pantheon Books. New York. 2007

Sanders, Tony. Human Subject Graduation. HA-12-1-14

Sanders, Tony J. Medicine. HA-5-12-13

Sanders, Tony. Rolling Back the Tobacco Tax of 2009 Act HA-10-10-10


1. Unlawful Execution of Postal Search in the Jesse Ryan Loskarn's Child Pornography Case


Condolences on the hanging death of Jesse Ryan Loskarn, 35, former chief of staff to U.S. Sen. Lamar Alexander of Tennessee.  So much for the constitutionality of USPS Congressional search and seizure statute and the idea that the USPS might somehow have better luck suing and being sued regarding a criminal case than myself or the FDA.  It was apparently USPS executing a search warrant who discovered an external drive with over 200 child porn files.  Loskarn was probably overwhelmed by the child porn cases in the news, particularly the one about the police chief, if he wasn't actually murdered/dosed with dimethoxymethylamphetamine, 50 times more powerful than DMT, to remind people just how cruel and unusual child porn charges are.  That's what happened to Dr. Michael Luebbe, a university music professor after he was falsely charged with child pornography that had been spammed onto his computer when he asked a computer consultant to delete it from his computer, he died at a young age shortly after serving the full five year sentence, when the prosecutor of the case was imprisoned.  The Oregon Supreme Court recently dismissed child porn charges in two cases where the images had been automatically downloaded from websites citing the Netherlands child porn study that called for mandatory restitution of the exploited children, running between $100 to $1.2 million for one child porn star with a prosecuting pimp daddy (the principle of victim compensation should probably more widely applied in all genuine prosecutions) Paroline v. Amy Unknown, United States. 5th Cir. No. 12-856120 November, 2013.  USPS and Congress might wish to consider repealing Sections 603 through 606 of Title 39 of the United States Code pertaining to the Postal Service. The search for child porn in Mr .Loskarn's home by USPS does not seem to be authorized by Congressional statute and ultimately resulted in his death.  Searches authorized 39USC(I)(6)§603 states, The Postal Service may authorize any officer or employee of the Postal Service to make searches for mail matter transported in violation of law. When the authorized officer has reason to believe that mailable matter transported contrary to law may be found therein, he may open and search any—(1) vehicle passing, or having lately passed, from a place at which there is a post office of the United States; (2) article being, or having lately been, in the vehicle; or (3) store or office, other than a dwelling house, used or occupied by a common carrier or transportation company, in which an article may be contained.  The postal service was not authorized to search the Loskarn home where they discovered the child pornography.  USPS owes the Loskarn estate $500 to authorize recovery of civil damages under 18USC(119)§2520 for the hanging death that inadvertently occurred as a consequence to the illegal search of a dwelling house in violation of 39USC(I)(6)§603(3) and should repeal or independently strike down the entire Congressionally pre-authorized USPS burglary profession from Section 603 to 606 of Title 39. 


The Loskarn child pornography case reveals a fatal weakness in First Amendment Privacy Protection, as codified at 42USC(21A)§2000aa.  It is provided in both paragraphs (a)(1) and (b)(1) search or seizure may be conducted under the provisions of this paragraph if the offense consists of the receipt, possession, or communication of information relating to the national defense, classified information, or restricted data under the provisions of section 793, 794, 797, or 798 of title 18, or section 2274, 2275, or 2277 of title 42, or section 783 of title 50, pertaining to espionage cases such Wikileaks: Honorable Discharge of Bradley Manning HA-31-1-12 and Snowden ex. rel. v. President Obama; National Security Administration (NSA) HA-6-1-14 or if the offense involves the production, possession, receipt, mailing, sale, distribution, shipment, or transportation of child pornography, the sexual exploitation of children, or the sale or purchase of children under section 2251, 2251A, 2252, or 2252A of title 18) such as Loskarn, Luebbe and their prosecutors who have also been imprisoned and committed suicide.  The Fourth Amendment protection against unrestricted searches and the First Amendment guarantee of freedom of speech are closely linked. The right to speak freely without government intrusion lies at the core of First Amendment protection. Indeed, “our founders believed that freedom to think as you will and to speak as you think are means indispensable to the discovery and spread of political truth” in Whitney v. California, 274 U.S. 357 (1927).  In Rakas v. Illinois (1978) 439U.S.128 it was determined that to accurately gauge probable cause required by the Fourth Amendment against an individual's right to privacy officers must not “violate a person's legitimate interest to privacy”.  The warrant requirement is no mere formality, it is a crucial safeguard against abuses in McDonald v. United States, 335 U.S. 451 (1948).  These espionage and child porn special prosecutions strangely exempted from First Amendment Privacy Protection clearly require equal protection under the Fifth Amendment privilege against non-self incrimination which provides; A confession, shall be admissible in evidence if it is voluntarily given under 18USC(II)(223)§3501.  Whenever a witness refuses, on the basis of his privilege against self-incrimination, to testify or provide other information and the person presiding over the proceeding communicates to the witness an order issued under this title, the witness may not refuse to comply with the order on the basis of his privilege against self-incrimination; but no testimony or other information compelled under the order (or any information directly or indirectly derived from such testimony or other information) may be used against the witness in any criminal case, except a prosecution for perjury, giving a false statement, or otherwise failing to comply with the order under 18USC(V)(601)§6002.  Rule 41 (e) of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure disqualifies evidence when, (1) the property was illegally seized without warrant, (2) the warrant is insufficient on its face, (3) the property seized is not that described in the warrant, (4) there was not probable cause for believing the existence of the grounds on which the warrant was issued, (5) the warrant was illegally executed.  


2. Interference with a Personal Loan between Bob and Maureen McDonnel and J.W. President of Star Scientific


JW from Star Scientific wants his money back for the McDonnel family wedding.  The U.S. does not have a criminal case against anyone but the Attorney General Master Tobacco Fund prosecutors who brought this case.  The so called Eastern District of Virginia Grand Jury seems to be acting on the premise that Gov. Christie will employ them even after they go publicly insane and quit because of their guilty feeling regarding robbing and incarcerating a high level state executive with the illegally intercepted information, armed robbery and obstruction charges applicable only to the prosecution in this case, and in other racketeering prosecutions like it.  A $50,000 under the table loan does not distort a $2,500,000 declaration of assets and liabilities to a lending company, but false criminal charges against a former governor and his wife by ostensibly bar certified prosecutors perpetrating the crimes they allege others to have committed does. The aforesaid tobacco fund is supposed to pay for 100% of the State Children's Health Insurance Costs but they have instead been wasted on scandalous corrupt prosecutors.  It is the responsibility of the legal system to get the politically charged federal drug offenders, particularly marijuana, out of federal prison, not invent new ways of interfering with commerce with threats and violence.  On Dec. 31, 2013, the same day a high school friend of mine who had settled on long term mental health treatment in the public health system, died at age 39, Star Scientific wrote that they had received a warning letter from the FDA regarding consumer products.  Star Scientific, Inc. (NASDAQ:STSI) announced the receipt on December 24, 2013, of a warning letter from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regarding two consumer products, Anatabloc® and CigRx®, which are marketed by the Company.  The letter requires the Company to respond to the FDA with information and remedial steps. Both of the Company's consumer products contain anatabine, a substance naturally occurring in various plants. In the letter, the agency asserts that anatabine is a new dietary ingredient that required premarket notification to the agency. The agency also asserts that the Company's products are unapproved new drugs based on statements made on the Company's websites.  As is typical for warning letters issued by FDA, the agency stated that the Company's failure to address these alleged violations may result in regulatory action by the FDA without further notice.  The Company is responding to the letter and has already advised the agency that it intends to work cooperatively to resolve these issues, including undertaking a review of the Company's websites.  Certain statements contained in this release constitute forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Such statements include, but are not limited to statements identified by words such as "believes," "expects," "anticipates," "estimates," "intends," "plans," "targets," "projects" and similar expressions. The statements in this release are based upon the current beliefs and expectations of our company's management and are subject to significant risks and uncertainties. Actual results may differ from those set forth in the forward-looking statements. Numerous factors could cause or contribute to such differences, including, but not limited to, results of clinical trials and/or other studies, the challenges inherent in new product development initiatives, including the continued development and market acceptance of our nutraceutical dietary supplements products, the effect of any competitive products, our ability to license and protect our intellectual property, our ability to raise additional capital in the future that is necessary to maintain our business, changes in government policy and/or regulation, potential litigation by or against us, any governmental review of our products or practices and the outcome of the ongoing investigations as well as other risks discussed from time to time in our filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission, including, without limitation, our annual report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2012 and our quarterly reports on Form 10-Q for the quarters ended March 31, 2013, June 30, 2013, and September 30, 2013.


The crime of racketeering is defined under 18USC(I)(95)1951(a) as interference with commerce with threats and violence so that, Whoever in any way or degree obstructs, delays, or affects commerce or the movement of any article or commodity in commerce, by robbery or extortion or attempts or conspires so to do, or commits or threatens physical violence to any person or property in furtherance of a plan or purpose to do anything in violation of this section shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than twenty years, or both.  But who is it that is interfering with commerce with threats and violence?  It is 2014 and the United States cannot continue to employ or sustain the conviction of these self-incriminating racketeering prosecutors who libel respectable citizens with crimes that can only be construed to have been committed by themselves during the course of one investigation. The Eastern District of Virginia has exhibited a clear predilection for these racketeering cases in January when the racketeering charge appeals to their seasonal affective disorder, which involves delusions of grandeur pertaining the geolocation of the Styrene Institute in their district, which qualifies the U.S. Attorney and U.S. Department of Justice officials prosecuting these alleged racketeering cases for disability insurance as a successful resolution of both U.S .v. Megavideo; Kim Dotcom et al. Eastern District of Virginia. Grand Jury Indictment. No. 1:12 CR3 Alexandria, Virginia. January 5, 2012 and U.S. v. Bob and Maureen McDonnell. Eastern District of Virginia. Grand Jury Indictment. No. 3:14cr12 Richmond, Virginia. January 2014. Reported by Alman, Ashley. Bob McDonnel, Wife Indicted on Federal Corruption Charges as reported in the Huffington Post on 21 January 2014.  The Guidelines on the Role of Prosecutors of 7 September 1990 provides at paragraph 14 Prosecutors shall not initiate or continue prosecution, or shall make every effort to stay proceedings, when an impartial investigation shows the charge to be unfounded.  15. Prosecutors shall give due attention to the prosecution of crimes committed by public officials, particularly corruption, abuse of power, grave violations of human rights and other crimes recognized by international law and, where authorized by law or consistent with local practice, the investigation of such offences.  16. When prosecutors come into possession of evidence against suspects that they know or believe on reasonable grounds was obtained through recourse to unlawful methods, which constitute a grave violation of the suspect's human rights, especially involving torture or cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, or other abuses of human rights, they shall refuse to use such evidence against anyone other than those who used such methods, or inform the Court accordingly, and shall take all necessary steps to ensure that those responsible for using such methods are brought to justice.


The Superceding Indictment of Northern District of Illinois Judge James B. Zagel in U.S. v. Rod Blagojevich et al. No. 08 CR 888 dated February 2008 offends the public integrity of the United States from its U.S. Department of Justice Public Integrity Office to the black slave owner in the White House and fiscally incompetent Secretaries of Transportation and Education from Illinois, costing the federal deficit more than $100 billion in superfluous, deposits in the Student Loan and Highway Trust Funds, marked imaginary and consequential out of control T-bond sales.  Of Illinois' last seven governors, four have ended up going to prison. They are: Rod Blagojevich – Governor from 2002 through 2009, when he became the first Illinois governor in history to be impeached. Convicted of numerous corruption charges in 2011, including allegations that he tried to sell or trade President Barack Obama's old Senate seat. George Ryan – Governor from 1999 through 2003. After leaving office, was convicted of racketeering for actions as governor and secretary of state. In November 2007, began serving a 6 1/2 year sentence in federal prison and was released on January 30, 2013.  Dan Walker – Governor from 1973-1977. Pleaded guilty to bank fraud and other charges in 1987 related to his business activities after leaving office. Spent about a year and a half in federal prison. Otto Kerner – Governor from 1961-1968. Resigned to become judge, then was convicted of bribery related to his tenure as governor. Sentenced to three years in prison.  The high level of office that this local practice offends, the African-American President of the United States, and unlawful amount of T-bonds sold deprives Americans of an intangible right of honest services..  A claim by a party aggrieved that evidence is inadmissible because it is the primary product of an unlawful act or because it was obtained by the exploitation of an unlawful act, the opponent of the claim shall affirm or deny the occurrence of the alleged unlawful act under 18USC(II)(223)§3504. In the Motion to Disclose Intercepted Communications: US v. Rod Blagojevich and John Harris 594 F.Supp.2d 993 (2009) Northern District of Illinois Chief Judge James F. Holderman reports that on December 9, 2008, agents of the Federal Bureau of Investigation arrested Illinois Governor Rod R. Blagojevich pursuant to a criminal complaint filed in this case. That complaint charged defendant Blagojevich with two counts of alleged criminal conduct: one count of conspiring to defraud the citizens of Illinois of their right to his honest services in violation of the mail and wire fraud statutes, 18 U.S.C. §§ 1341, 1343, 1346, and 1349, and one count of corruptly soliciting and demanding the firing of Chicago Tribune editorial board members who had been critical of defendant Blagojevich, in exchange for the awarding of millions of dollars in financial assistance from the State of Illinois in violation of 18 U.S.C. §§ 666(a)(1)(B) and 2. Within days of defendant Blagojevich's arrest, the Illinois House of Representatives adopted House Resolution 1650, creating a Special Investigative Committee "for the purpose of (i) investigating allegations of misfeasance, malfeasance, nonfeasance, and other misconduct of Governor Rod R. Blagojevich and (ii) making a recommendation as to whether cause exists for impeachment." H.R. Res. 1650, 95th Gen. Assem., Reg. Sess. (Ill. 2008). The United States of America (the "government") on December 29, 2008, filed a Motion to Disclose Intercepted Communications to the Special Investigative Committee of the Illinois House of Representatives (Dkt. No. 16).  Although the Chief Judge of the District takes full responsibility for authorizing the wire fraud the United States failed to stop charging the defendant with these charges as required to do by paragraph 16 of the Guidelines on the Role of Prosecutors.  The Superseding Indictment written by Northern District of Illinois Judge James B. Zagel in U.S. v. Rod Blagojevich et al. No. 08 CR 888 dated February 2008 lists as violations: Title 18, Sections 1001(a)(2), 1343, 1346, 1349, 1951(a), and 1962(d).  The Appeal of Chicago Tribune Company, The New York Times Company, Illinois Press Association, and Illinois Broadcasters Association indicates that the press has dropped the inapplicable theft or bribery concerning programs receiving federal funds §666 charges in U.S. v. Rod and Robert Blagojevich, Defendants the Denial of Appeal en banc 614 F.3d 287 (2010) and 612 F. 3d 558 (2010) which both serve to exclude the names of jurors from the mass media to protect them from the racketeering charges which have been substituted for the equally false theft or bribery concerning programs receiving federal funds charges. 


The Judges of the 7th Cir. Court of Appeals express that they are too scared to redress the cruel and unusual Illinois tradition of falsely imprisoning their former Governors, beginning with Rod Blagojevich et al which came to their attention because it so seriously corrupts the administration of the black lawyer President.  Reason being, 7th Circuit Court Judge Posner, has not solved Martial's law.  In 'Little Book of Plagiarism' he writes, "Plagiarism is a species of intellectual fraud.  It consists of unauthorized copying that the copier claims (whether explicitly or implicitly and whether deliberately or carelessly) is original with him and the claim causes the copier’s audience to behave otherwise than it would if it knew the truth.  The issue being the libel caused by the release of illegally obtained evidence seems to have a doubly damaging effect on the alleged defendant, not only by the innocuous speculative information contained therein, but also because the crimes of illegally obtaining the evidence are abusively applied to the defendant and in these racketeering cases before us, is the exclusive source of violation of the laws, for which people are serving years in prison for crimes they did not commit.  The Latin word plagarias was first used in its modern sense by Roman poet Martial in the first century AD.  A plagarius was someone who stole another’s slave or enslaved a free person" (Posner 07:82, 90).  The fear expressed by the judges of the 7th Circuit Court of Appeals seems to be derived from the part about "stealing another's slave" and to those who have not actually solved Martial's law these poetic slaves, Rod Blagojevich et al, falsely accused of the crimes of the racketeering prosecutors,  belong to the Illinois. President Barack Obama, who has the power to pardon his supporters if wished to do so as Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces, and none dare challenge his military might The solution of Martial's law however takes some time to come to the realization that a person does not belong to another, this delusional ownership of another is all that perpetuates slavery.  The Constitution therefore provided for both the President to pardon prisoners and any Judge of the United States the right to acquit them. To solve Martial's law it is not plagiarism to free a slave 18USC§205(d)(1) but it is plagiarism to enslave a free person §205(d)(1)…Human Subject Graduation. HA-12-1-14


It is indiscrete that these racketeering prosecutors continue to slave a free person despite the moral hazard posed to the peculiar institution by an African-American lawyer President and Attorney General, who have so far, not made any headway reducing the steadily increasing national and federal penal populations.  Racial disparities among prisoners persist, particularly in the 25-29 age group, 8.1% of black men, about one in 13, were behind bars, compared with 2.6% of Hispanic men and 1.1% of white men.  Making the black President the slave owner of his innocent former supporter and 'master' amounts to exclusion of jurors on account of race or color under 18USC(13)§243.  The President's labor agenda in his State of the Union is only answering to the Indian problem of debt slavery.  Besides the President' free will, and federal budget in general, the Departments of Education and Transportation budgets have been corrupted by Blagojevich's 'federal bailout' and more than $100 billion a year could be saved, from these two departments alone, who safely put the fantasy money in the student loan and highway fund respectively, until the day the federal government bails out Rod Blagojevich, and the truth is known regarding the 'Federal Budget Balanced to Prevent 100% of GDP Debt FY2012'.  To redress The Gap Between Wisdom and Wealth: Pardon Rod Blagojevich et al, U.S. v. Blagojevich et al No. 08 CR 888 must be overturned.  A Presidential pardon is order, but an acquittal by any federal judge, is honest.  It is however not that simple Art. 14(6) of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights of 23 March 1976, requires, “when a person has by a final decision been convicted of a criminal offence and when subsequently his conviction has been reversed or he has been pardoned on the ground that a new or newly discovered fact shows conclusively that there has been a miscarriage of justice, the person who has suffered punishment as a result of such conviction shall be compensated according to law”.  The United States needs to pay and we don't have any experience Pakistan, Afghanistan and Yemen (PAY) ing due to invasion of the news media by some armed Security Agreement.  To pay on a budget, with what money exists on the public record in regards to this case, it is suggested to charge the prosecutors of the Northern District of Illinois with the $5,000 fine for the exclusion of jurors 18USC(13) §243 pertaining to their local practice of falsely imprisoning their former Governor beyond their ability to conceal from the news media of the defamed black slave owner in the White House.  Blagojevich is a lawyer, fully qualified for federal office, and due to his false arrest and incarceration he might, with the reconciliation and protection of the President, not only be publicly freed, to secure the blessings of liberty for the nation, but be appointed to be an inspired leader of the efforts of the Obama administration to normalize the prison population. Blakely v. Washington No. 02-1632 of June 24, 2004 “eliminated sentencing guidelines schemes and 20 years of sentencing reform".  Composition of Institutional Review Boards where prisoners are involved requires that at least one member of the Board shall be a prisoner, or a prisoner representative with appropriate background and experience to serve in that capacity, except that where a particular research project is reviewed by more than one Board only one Board need satisfy this requirement under 45CFR§46.304(b) Biomedical or behavioral research conducted or supported by DHHS shall not involve prisoners as subjects except for research on practices, which have the intent and reasonable probability of improving the health or well-being of the subject 45CFR§46.306(b)(a)(iv).  State studies have shown that earning a college degree in prison eliminates recidivism by 100% which otherwise runs at around 60% re-incarceration in three years (Gilligan '11:90, 91). 


3. Rescheduling Alcohol (II), Tobacco (II) and Marijuana (III) in, or Removing Marijuana from the Schedules of the CSA


The US Attorney General with the advice of the Secretary of Health and Human Services may choose to reclassify a drug under 21USC(13)§ 811(s)(2)(a) of the Controlled Substances Act (CSA).  The President and Attorney General express interest in getting the Drug Schedules of the Controlled Substances Act (CSA) right.  §307c of Drug Regulation (DR) has been amended for Reclassifying Alcohol, Tobacco and Marijuana in the CSA.  It states; A. Five schedules of controlled substances; I, II, III, IV, and V are established under 21USC(13)§812.  (1) Schedule I.— (A) The drug or other substance has a high potential for abuse. (B) The drug or other substance has no currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States. (C) There is a lack of accepted safety for use of the drug or other substance under medical supervision.  (2) Schedule II.—(A) The drug or other substance has a high potential for abuse. (B) The drug or other substance has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States or a currently accepted medical use with severe restrictions. (C) Abuse of the drug or other substances may lead to severe psychological or physical dependence.  (3) Schedule III.— (A) The drug or other substance has a potential for abuse less than the drugs or other substances in schedules I and II. (B) The drug or other substance has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States. (C) Abuse of the drug or other substance may lead to moderate or low physical dependence or high psychological dependence.  (4) Schedule IV.— (A) The drug or other substance has a low potential for abuse relative to the drugs or other substances in schedule III. (B) The drug or other substance has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States. (C) Abuse of the drug or other substance may lead to limited physical dependence or psychological dependence relative to the drugs or other substances in schedule III.  (5) Schedule V.— (A) The drug or other substance has a low potential for abuse relative to the drugs or other substances in schedule IV. (B) The drug or other substance has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States. (C) Abuse of the drug or other substance may lead to limited physical dependence or psychological dependence relative to the drugs or other substances in schedule IV. 


The Attorney General may by rule— (1) add to such a schedule or transfer between such schedules any drug or other substance if he— (A) finds that such drug or other substance has a potential for abuse, and (B) makes with respect to such drug or other substance the findings prescribed for the schedule in which such drug is to be placed; or (2) remove any drug or other substance from the schedules if he finds that the drug or other substance does not meet the requirements for inclusion in any schedule under 21USC(13)§811. The Attorney General shall, before initiating proceedings to control a drug or other substance or to remove a drug or other substance entirely from the schedules, and after gathering the necessary data, request from the Secretary a scientific and medical evaluation, and his recommendations, as to whether such drug or other substance should be so controlled or removed as a controlled substance. In making such evaluation and recommendations.  the Attorney General shall consider the following factors with respect to each drug or other substance proposed to be controlled or removed from the schedules: (1) Its actual or relative potential for abuse. (2) Scientific evidence of its pharmacological effect, if known. (3) The state of current scientific knowledge regarding the drug or other substance. (4) Its history and current pattern of abuse. (5) The scope, duration, and significance of abuse. (6) What, if any, risk there is to the public health. (7) Its psychic or physiological dependence liability. (8) Whether the substance is an immediate precursor of a substance already controlled.


Should the Attorney General remove marijuana from the schedule entirely or should alcohol and tobacco be included?  The substantive legal issue is that marijuana is a Schedule I narcotic although it is a popular recreational drug with no fatalities and mild psychological dependence and although it is harmless since mandatory minimum sentencing began in the 1980s more than half of the inmates in federal penitentiaries are detained on federal drug charges and 60% of those for marijuana.  This armed robbery of recreational drugs dealers is adequately described as interference with commerce with threats and violence 18USC(I)(95)1951.  The federal prosecutors seem to swear off drug slavery every New Year for First Amendment Privacy Protection reasons but then without citing any literature assault soft political and financial targets with their confession of racketeering.  A number of state ballot measures have attempted to appeal the medical acceptability of marijuana use however legalization seems to be a healthier approach.  The question of whether to remove marijuana from the drug schedule entirely or to include alcohol and tobacco in order to provide the public with a meaningful lesson regarding the potential for abuse and addiction found in the drugs many Americans consume everyday, hinges upon the existence of federally financed "drug enforcement".  If the federal police finance  of the Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (ATF) and Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) were abolished and their drug regulatory functions transferred to an FDA Center for Alcohol, Tobacco and Marijuana (ATM) and Drug Evaluation Agency (DEA) it would be safe to use the drug schedules of the CSA to inform the public of the comparative dangers of psychotropic drug addiction.  However, if the police drug finance is not definitively terminated, and drug regulatory functions not transferred to the FDA,  marijuana should be removed from the drug schedules entirely.  An employee to be released, due to a "reduction in force", shall be given written notice, at least 60 days before such employee is so released under 5USCIIIB(35)I§3502(d).  When a function is transferred from one agency to another, each competing employee in the function shall be transferred to the receiving agency for employment in a position for which he is qualified before the receiving agency may make an appointment from another source to that position under 5USCIIIB(35)§3503(a).  Police finance and duplicate drug seizure and arrest statistics are not functions of the ATM, the DEA registration, and drug stockpiles shall continue to function undisturbed.  No functions are evident for the federal regulation of alcohol and tobacco beyond excise taxes, deferred until the federal government both refunds hand rolling tobacco consumers their tax increase with a complete tax exemption for about 50 years and legalizes marijuana. Criminal justice functionaries would be released with whatever social insurance or reemployment they individually merit while functional drug regulatory employees of the ATF and DEA, would be transferred to the FDA as a Center for Alcohol, Tobacco and Marijuana (ATM) and Drug Evaluation Agency (DEA) without any need for either Presidential or Congressional approval until the technical details and moral hzards are worked out between the Attorney General and the Commissioner of the FDA. 


(1) Although marijuana is harmless alcohol, tobacco and narcotics can lead to serious life threatening addictions, which the public needs to be made aware. But first we must treat on fact that the DEA regulation of narcotics as we know it is a serious organized crime threatening the lives of victims of severe pain who get addicted to narcotic pain relievers.  Opioids are the frontline against severe pain whereas other non-addictive painkillers are under development.  Opiates are addictive and the average person who injects heroin daily develops the habit within 2 weeks.  Percocet is usually prescribed for the first few days, then Oxycontin for more prolonged pain.  Fatal drug overdoses from opioids increased for the 11th straight year and the injectable narcotic agonists Narcan (naloxone) should be administered by emergency responders to reverse potentially deadly respiratory depression and coma.  Naltrexone became clinically available in 1985 as a new narcotic antagonist. Its actions resemble those of naloxone, but naltrexone is well is well absorbed orally and is long acting, necessitating only a dose of 50 to 100 mg.  DEA regulation takes most of the blame for the increase in fatal prescription opiate drug overdoses, making it difficult to pin the blame on doctors prescribing opiates to incorrigible opiate addicts.  The Journal of the American Medical Association reports that drug overdose deaths were on the rise for the 11th straight year. There were a total of 38,329 drug overdose deaths in 2010 according to the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention -- and 60 percent were due to medications, the majority of which were prescription drugs.  Opiod drugs, which include OxyContin and Vicodin, were the most frequently involved, accounting for three out of four medication overdose deaths. Only 17 percent of the deaths were suicides, meaning the vast majority were unintentional overdoses.  The Department of Justice reported that fatal overdoses from methadone increased from 500 in 1999 to more than 5,000 in 2006. Narcotic Antagonists prevent or abolish excessive respiratory depression caused by the administration of morphine or related compounds. Naltrexone (Narcan) became clinically available in 1985 as a new narcotic antagonist. Its actions resemble those of naloxone, but naltrexone is well is well absorbed orally and is long acting, necessitating only a dose of 50 to 100 mg.  Narcotic Antagonists must be made available as rescue medicine with opioid prescriptions.


Narcotics, also known as opioids, are derived from opium (Papaverum somniferum) that has been used for pain relief for thousands of years.  Potent opioids commonly use in the postoperative patient are morphine, Dilaudid, and rarely, Demerol.  In some cases, a superpotent synthetic narcotic, fentanyl, is used postoperatively.  Fentanyl is about 100 times more potent than morphine in relieving pain.  Weak opioids drugs, like Darvocet and Vicodin, are widely prescribed narcotics for mild to moderate pain following surgery.  Codeine is another weak opioid available in liquid form and more commonly uised for mild to moderate pain in the pediatric population.  Narcotics taken by the oral route result in highly variable blood levels due to unpredictable absorption from the gastrointestinal tract.  However, because 65 percent of all surgeries are done on an outpatient basis, we must rely heavily on the oral route.  Weak opioids are inadequate for severe surgical pain.  The most common routes of administration of potent narcotics for severe pain are: by injection – either intravenous (directly into the bloodstream), subcutaneous (into the fat below the skin), or intramuscular (directly into the muscle); or by the spinal or epidural route. Blood levels of narcotic medication following intravenous injection are more predictable than intramuscular injection. Use of spinal morphine may produce intense analgesia for eighteen to twenty-four hours, and the epidural catheter can be left in and morphine continued for days.  A patient controlled analgesia (PCA) device is a computer controlled pump that delivers predetermined dose of narcotic into you intravenous tubing whenever you press a button.  Studies have shown decreased total narcotic usage with PCA when compared to intermittent injections.

Of the more than 25 alkaloids obtained from opium and its extracts, the most important are morphine (4-21%) codeine (0.8-2.5%) noscapine or narcotine (4-8%) papaverine (0.5-2.5%) and thebaine (0.5-2%).  Isolated in 1803, morphine came into general use as a painkiller in the 1830s, but only after the perfection of the hypodermic needle in 1853 could the drug be used to obtain rapid relief.  It was widely dispensed during the American Civil War and the Franco-Prussian war and addiction to morphine became known as the soldier’s disease.  Substitutes were sought, and in 1898, with major acclaim, heroin was placed on the market as a harmless, non-addicting substitute for morphine and codeine.  By 1905 a leading text asserted that heroin was addictive.  Action in the central nervous system includes a general decrease in brain arousal to painful stimulation and also depresses respiration in overdose.  Female addicts often have delayed and irregular menstruation and likelihood of pregnancy is reduced, if pregnancy results, there is a much greater risk of a handicapped birth, such as low birth weight. Heroin overdoses that fatally depressed respiration accounted for 1154 deaths during 1970 alone. The average person who injects heroin daily develops the habit within 2 weeks (based on normal dose of 1/6-1/4 grains of morphine 4 times daily for 2 weeks).  Tolerance develops swiftly and when the addict wants to repeat the intensity of the first euphoric experience he must increase the dose.  The addict feels normal for only a short period whereupon withdrawal symptoms appear until another dose is administered.  The addict begins to inject heroin not to feel good but to prevent feeling sick.  Withdrawal is characterized by muscle twitching of the feet and legs, about 12 hours after the last dose of heroin, and this increases for several days (thus the term “kicking the habit”).  Treatment by pharmacological methods in the United States have centered around methadone maintenance programs.  Methadone is synthetic addictive opiate developed in Germany during World War II.  Methadone depresses respiration less acutely than morphine and heroin and is equally powerful.  It does not produce as much euphoria or drowsiness and withdrawal symptoms are less severe because they occur over a longer period.  In treatment programs methadone is given orally once a day, with the daily dose of 10mg increased to 40-50 mg during the first stage.  At this level craving for opiates disappears.  At still higher doses (80-140 mg) methadone prevents withdrawal symptoms, stops the desire for opiates and blocks the measurable effects of opiates.  The side effects of methadone resemble those of other opiates (weight gain 80%, constipation 70%, delayed ejaculation 60%, increased use of alcohol, increased frequency of urination 37%, numbness I extremities 32%, and hallucination 17%) and many relapse to heroin.  Elsewhere addicts are administered heroin, thereby eliminating the criminal element.  Lactuca quercina and L. virosa (Asteraceae) are cultivated in France, and the extracted lactucarium, reputed to be a mild sedative is used in cough mixtures to replace opium.  In Thailand leaves of Mitragyna speciosa (Rubiaceae) are chewed and smoked as a substitute for opium, as are seeds of Pterygota alata (Sterculiaceae) in Pakistan.  A tincture of oats (Avena sativa) has been employed successful for centuries by Ayurvedic Indian practitioners to cure the opium habit (Sanders '13: Neurology 29-30).


(2) Tobacco is a highly addictive drug; nicotine withdrawal is a recognized psychiatric disorder.  Treatment of nicotine withdrawal with Nicorrette gum or the benzodiazapine Wellbutrin has been shown to help.  The FDA failed to arrive at a new warning label for tobacco products as directed  by a Congress.  The most serious problem is that the public is not properly warned that "nicotine withdrawal" is a severe mental illness in its own right and that this is the entire problem faced by the healthy tobacco consumer who should be reminded of this scientific fact on the warning label which makes other claims of varying validity.  Smoking and coronary artery disease are not correlated, coronary artery disease is related by cardiotoxin to animal lipids, and treated with fresh fabrics, a vegan diet and cardiovascular exercise.  Low fertile birth-weight may also be a myth.  On the other hand, respiratory infections are a clear indication that a smoker should not smoke and oral cancer a clear indication to stop chewing tobacco, throat cancer to stop drinking and smoking and lung cancer to stop smoking.  The odds of getting lung cancer are about seven times greater in smokers than nonsmokers but only about one in ten smokers get lung cancer.  The risk of lung cancer, called mesothelioma to the confusion of statistics, is 50 times greater in smokers who are exposed to asbestos, non-smokers are immune.  To totally debunk the use of the drug schedule for penal sentencing tobacco, the most American of all drugs, that addicts often fail to even consider a drug, for want of medico-legal reason, other than as a treatment for mental illness, whose addiction is worse than its benefit, is a definitive schedule II drug with no acceptable medical uses and extremely high potential for addiction.  For every 1000 young men adopting a life time habit of smoking, on average, one  will be murdered, six will die in road traffic accidents and 250 will die of tobacco-related deaths including lung cancer.  In 1761 in London, John Hill – doctor, botanist, playwright, and plymath – published a one-shilling pamphlet cautioning against the immoderate use of tobacco snuff.  He described several cases of fatal polyps of the nose or nasal carcinoma in men who were heavy, long-term users of snuff, and he proferred the following advice, "no man should venture upon snuff,who is not sure that he is not so far liable to cancer: and no man can be sure of that'.  At the beginning of the 20th century, an American clinician, Dr. R. Abe, provided compelling evidence that oral cancer was linked to tobacco exposure.  The oral cavity is also the hot spot for cancers associated with some of the more exotic smoking styles developed in India and other parts of South East Asia.   It is estimated that over 200 million people currently chew betel quid which is a mixture of betel leaf, areca nut, slaked lime, and usually, tobacco.  Lethal lesions of the oral cavity are described in Indian medical texts from around 600 B.C.  For pipe smokers, the lower lip appears to be more at risk than the upper, and it may be that the damage elicited by heat exacerbates the impact of tobacco carcinogens.  For the traditional high tar cigarette, and particularly with inhalation, the major bronchial tracts incur the highest insult and consequent cancer rate (squamous bronchial carcinoma).  In the first half of the twentieth century, lung cancer, formerly considered to be a very rare disease, began to be increasingly diagnosed and many doctors and scientists in both the USA and Europe, and particularly in Nazi Germany voiced their suspicion that cigarette smoking might be the cause.  But it took until 1950 for epidemiologists to provide persuasive evidence for the strong association between tobacco smoking and lung cancer risk.


Currently between two and four million adults a year die of smoking-related diseases.  Some 40 percent of these have lung cancers.  Other causes of death include cancers of the mouth, pharynx and larynx, and obstructive lung disease.  Cigarette smoking is also rumored to increase the risk of cancers of the pancreas, kidney and bladder.  Cancers of the lung bronchi (squamous cell carcinomas) are decreasing but the previously rare adenocarcinomas of the lung are increasing substantially amongst smokers, and especially in women.  These tumours arise from the deeper branch ends of the lung tree (the alveoli), and the most plausible explanation for their increase is that smokers have adopted the habit of inhaling more deeply to obtain their nicotine fix from milder cigarettes.  The long latency of lung cancer due to smoking may have helped disguise the lethal connection with lung cancer for the first half of the twentieth-century, but as recently as 1994 Chief Executives of seven major cigarette manufacturers could testify under oath before the USA Government House  Health and Environment Committee, that they did not believe that nicotine was addictive or that cigarette smoking caused lung cancer.  One third of the world's smokers are Chinese, tobacco is their largest industrial source of tax revenue.  It is calculated tht one third of young Chinese men smoking now will die of a tobacco related illness during the first half of the twenty-first century, providing an accumulative death toll of around 100 million.  On a worldwide scale, the annual death rate will increase to 10 million a year by 2030 and half of these individuals will be only 35 to 70 years of age.  Products of metabolized benzo(a)pyrene and mitrosamines, one of the most potent carcinogens in tobacco tar, have been shown to physically associate with selective regions of the p53 gene which is a hot spot for mutation in lung cancers.  The twentieth-century lung cancer epidemic was hugely facilitated by the invention of cigarette-making machines in the 1880s, and the wholesesale provision of free cigarettes to hundreds of thousands of soldiers in two world wars.   The lung of a 'pack a day' smoker for 40 years will have been the repository for 7 to 8 kilograms of tar.  Around one in ten of those who smoke 15 to 25 cigarettes a day will have lung cancer by age 75 years.  Heavy smokers (more than 25 a day) suffer this fate at a higher rate.  For every 20 lung cancer patients in the USA or Europe who smoke, there will be, on average, one non-smoker with a similar diagnosis.  Only a minority of smokers develop lung cancer.  Madame Jeanne Calment who died, not of cancer, at the age of 122 years, thanks her parents for escaping the penalty of a lifelong habit of smoking.  George Burns at 98 years of age still smoked 10 cigars a day.  During the 1970s Xuan Wei county in southern China had one of the highest rates of lung cancer in the whole of China.  What was odd was that the mortality rate for women was as high as that of men, despite the fact that less than 0.1 percent of women smoked cigarettes, compared with almost 50 percent of men.  The explanation was almost certainly the burning indoors of smoky coal, as opposed to smokeless coal or wood.


The lungs pull air in, transferring the oxygen to your blood, where it is pumped by the heart to the rest of the body to provide oxygen and sending the blood back to your lungs where the carbon dioxide is pushed out by your lungs.  Lung tissue does not regenerate, so loss of lung function is permanent.  Other parts of the body can be trained to compensate for this loss, as least to some degree, but lungs cannot be restored to their original condition after significant damage from emphysema, chronic bronchitis and severe asthma.  In COPD, the loss of oxygen is gradual, occurring over a period of years, unless there is a major illness.  Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a clinical syndrome of dyspnea on exertion with objective evidence of reduced airflow not explained by specific or infiltrative lung or heart disease.  Productive cough is often present.  Reduced airflow is detected on physical examination by diminution in the sounds of air movement, especially on expiration, throughout both lungs.  Reduced airflow may be measured by the standard ventilation tests (MVV, FEV1, REV1/FVC, and FEF25-75) or by measuring increased Raw (in the body plethysmograph).  Synonyms include chronic obstructive pulmonary emphysema, chronic obstructive lung disease, chronic airways obstruction, diffuse obstructive pulmonary syndrome, emphysema, chronic bronchitis, and others.  Emphysema is defined morphologically as a state of the lungs in which the air spaces distal to the terminal bronchioles are abnormally increased in size and undergo destructive changes in their walls.  Chronic bronchitis is characterized by excessive mucus secretion in the bronchial tree with chronic or recurrent productive cough on most days for a minimum of 3 months a year for not less than 2 successive years.  The diagnosis can be made only after excluding the presence of specific diseases of the lungs or bronchi, such as tuberculosis, abscess, tumor, bronchiectasis, and others that may cause identical symptoms.  COPD is almost always a mixture of emphysema and chronic bronchitis, and occasionally has elements of bronchiolitis and asthma. 


In normal lungs most of the normal resistance to airflow lies in airways more than 2 mm in diameter because the total cross-sectional diameter of the smaller ones is much greater than those larger than 2 mm in diameter.  Therefore, involvement of the small airways must be extensive before MVV, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, and FEF25-75 will be abnormal. In some patients COPD originates from repeated chest infections in childhood.  However, about two-thirds of cases begin in individuals aged 30 to 50 with chronic productive cough and repeated "colds" or deep chest infections.  Approximately 15% of patients have a history of episodic, non-effort-dependent, wheezing dyspnea (presumably bronchial asthma) generally during childhood, before the onset of effort-dependent dyspnea.  Some 20% of patients insist that dyspnea on exertion was their first symptom, but when closely questioned, most reveal that chronic cough started at the same time or soon after.  Another 5% of patients deny the presence of chronic cough.  Sudden episodes of dyspnea and coughing are often labeled pneumonia but may be episodes of acute bronchiolar inflammation, which may become chronic or result in irreversible obliteration of many bronchioles or extensive microscopic thromboembolism.  The course of COPD is commonly punctuated by exacerbations, usually caused by infections or by the inhalation of noxious fumes and by trauma, but sometime apparently unrelated to any identifiable event.  When an exacerbation was complicated by right-side heart failure, the outlook was poor before the use of continuous low-flow oxygen.  The causes of death in COPD, in order of frequency are respiratory failure, congestive heart failure secondary to cor pulmonale, pneumonia, sepsis, bronchitis, pulmonary thromboembolism perforation or hemorrhage of a peptic ulcer, and spontaneous pneumothorax.  The differential diagnosis of COPD should include other causes of congestive heart failure, other causes of erythremia, and the various specific causes of chronic cough and expectoration such as tuberculosis, functional dyspepsia, bronchiectasis and fungal disease.  Progressive weight loss is a poor prognostic sign.  Heavy eating is good for respiratory health.  


COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) is primarily a smoker’s disease, which clusters in families and worsens with age.  Doctors have learned about the underlying processes which damage the airways and alveoli and have developed powerful therapeutic approaches, and can improve the lives of patients diagnosed with COPD, even in advanced stages.  Oxygen studies have resulted in improved survival and life quality.  Today most people with COPD live into their seventies or eighties, a normal life span. The National Lung Health Education Program (NLHEP) aims to identify patients in incipient stages of disease, who are mostly smokers beginning to lose airflow.  A simple device, known as a spirometer, measures both airflow and volume.  This device should be present in all primary care physicians’ offices.  Early identification can lead to smoking cessation, which is the most important therapeutic intervention. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD) are terms that the medical profession uses to describe chronic bronchitis, asthmatic bronchitis, and emphysema.  They share a common trait: persistent difficulty in getting the air to flow out of the lung normally.  Eighty-two percent of those who die of COPD are smokers, and smokers are ten times more likely than non-smokers to die of the illness.  Although many of the lung changes of COPD are permanent, improvement in symptoms and signs of disease often begins by stopping smoking. Industrial pollutants may also be a factor in some cases of emphysema.  Prolonged exposure to cadmium or certain airborne fibers favors the later development of lung disease.  Emphysema can also be caused by an inherited problem which affects how your body reacts to lung damage.  Those who inherit a low level of a chemical called alpha-1 antitrypsin the lungs are easily damaged.  Emphysema can develop over the years and the lungs overreact to cigarette smoke and to infections.  The prominent features of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are cough, unusual amounts of sputum, and shortness of breath, with constant fatigue.  Next to coronary heart disease, COPD accounts for more severe disability and untimely deaths than any other health-related problem in the United States.  According to the American Lung Association, 15.4 million Americans are affected with COPD.  People who smoke and develop COPD are more likely to develop cancer than those who smoke and do not develop COPD (Sanders '13: Pulmonology 119-121).


Lung cancer is the most common fatal neoplasm in the United States in both women and men.  It has replaced tuberculosis as the major pulmonary cause of death.  Approximately 150,000 new cases will be diagnosed in 1988.  Over the past 40 years, long-term survival after the diagnosis of lung cancer has shown little or no improvement.  The overall 5-year survival rate is approximately 10% to 15%.  Chemotherapy for small cell lung cancer has advanced significantly, resulting in prolongation of life but few long-term survivors.  Operative mortality has decreased from 10% to 3%.  The incidence of discovery of unresectable tumor at the time of thoracotomy has decreased from 25% to 5%  Because of the disappointing results of surgical therapy for lung cancer treatment lies in prevention, through smoking cessation.  One of 13 cigarette smokers develops bronchogenic carcinoma; smoking cessation resuts in a gradual normalization of risk over a period of 10 to 20 years.  The shocking rise in incidence of lung cancer in the twentieth century has suggested that environmental or behavioral factors are responsible.  Tobacco smoke, particularly from cigarettes, is the major factor for this precipitous disease.  Cigarette smokers have at least a 10 times greater risk of developing lung cancer than do nonsmokers.  Smokers with chronic obstructive lung disease are more likely to develop lung cancer than those without obstructive lung disease.  Maintaining close contact with an active cigarette smoker, may be responsible for upt to 5% of al lung cancer.  Asbestos exposure is a potent risk factor for bronchogenic carcinoma, as well as mesothelioma.  Asbestos exposure and cigarette smoking act synergistically; an asbestos worker who smokes has a 50-100-fold increased chance of developing lung cancer.  Whether asbestos exposure alone can be regarded as a cause of lung cancer has not been determined.  Exposure to radon daughters, which emit radioactive gas, may act synergistically with cigarette smoke to yield a risk 50 to 100 times greater than that of the normal population.  Exposure to radon occurs near uranium mining operations in the western United States and also when homes are built on or near hard rock formations.  A variety of other environmental and occupational factors that increase lung cancer risk have been identified.  These include exposure to arsenic, nickel, chromium, chloromethyl ethers, hydrocarbons, and mustard gas.  Disease that causes lung scarring, such as pulmonary tuberculosis or interstitial fibrosis, may predispose to "scar carcinomas" usually peripheral adenocarconomas of bronchioloalveolar cell carcinomas.


The incidence of lung cancer began to increase sharply in men about 1940 and in women about 1960.  Cigarette smoking became a widespread habit for men around 1920, but it took twenty years for this behavior to be reflected in the incidence of lung cancer.  Similarly, cigarette smoking among women only became really popular and acceptable during World War II.  The more one smokes and the longer one smokes, the greater is the chance that at some point a single cell (or one of it's descendants) in one's lungs is going to accumulate enough defects in their genes to cause uncontrolled cellular growth.  Twenty-two percent of the U.S. population smoked in 2003, down from 24 percent in 1998.  Deaths form mesothelioma, linked to asbestos exposure of workers in engineering and building industries in the 1960s and 1970s, are still increasing and are not expected to peak until the ear 2020.  Uncontrolled use of asbestos remains common outside of Europe and the USA.  Countries in South East Asia have been the major importers of asbestos (Greaves '00: 262).  Second-hand smoke can increase the frequency of asthma and bronchitis.  In May 2003 in the British Medical Journal a study titled Environmental Tobacco Smoke and Tobacco-Related Mortality in Prospective Study of Californians 1960-98.  35,561 individuals who were never smokers, but has a smoking spouse were studied.  The main finding was exposure to environmental tobacco smoke was not significantly associated with the death rate from coronary heart disease, lung cancer or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in men or women.  Cigarette causes many problems for smokers and some problems for non-smokers, especially children and those with asthma or bronchitis, but, it has not been shown persuasively to cause either lung cancer or heart attacks. It is claimed that passive smoking increases the risk of coronary heart disease and heart attacks by 25 percent, lung cancer by 17 to 22 percent, causing 3,000 lung cancer cases a year out of a total of about 170,000 cases each year. The patient with bronchogenic carcinoma is generally past age 35.  Only 3% of cases are diagnosed  patients before 35 years of age.  Cough is the commonest symptom.   Either the onset or a change in the nature of a chronic cough is the most common symptom.  Hemoptysis is a particularly suggestive sign and shuld neer be ignored, particularly in patients over 35 with a history of smoking.  Vague nonpleuretic chest pain added to a worsening cough and hemoptysis is a common triad seen in these diseases.  Dyspnea may occur, secondary either to an obstruction of an airway or to lympangitic spread of the tumor.  Recurrent pneumonia may be the first evidence of the presence of endobronchial obstructive lesion.   All pneumonias should be subjected to radiographs at intervals of 6 weeks to 2 months to document complete clearing.  If an infiltrate persists, increases in size, does not fully resolve on serial radiographs or recurs in the same location, further diagnostic steps should be taken.  Persistent infiltrate with evidence of volume loss is particularly worrisome.  Weight loss and anorexia may be initial symptoms and most often signify extensive disease on diagnosis. Chest irradiation has no impact on survival in patients with extensive stage disease.  Therefore, combination chemotherapy alone is customarily administered, although with results inferior to those obtained in limited disease.  Overall response rates of 65% to 85%, complete response rates of 15% to 30%, median survival of 7 to 11 months, 2 year survival of 0% to 5% and only anecdotal 5 year survival can be anticipated when effective combination chemotherapy programs are employed in disseminated SCLC.  Blogging-survivors ask for more prompt chemotherapy, preferably low methotrexate 2.5 mg, with pneumococcal vaccination, antibiotic and antifungal prophylaxis for the suspected invasive pulmonary aspergillosis from the academic laboratory sales of Aspergillis niger (Sanders '13: Oncology 150-151).


In 2009 the Children’s Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act of 2009 (CHIPRA, Public Law 111–3) Title VII Revenue Provisions Section 701 Increase in Excise Tax Rate on Tobacco Products, imposed a 2,653 percent tax increase on small cigars and 2,159 percent tax increase on roll-your-own tobacco; while subjecting small cigarettes, large cigarettes, chewing tobacco, snuff, pipe tobacco, cigarette papers and cigarette tubes were subjected to a more reasonable 158 percent increase and large cigars a 155 percent increase and no floor tax.  This tax increase was used to conceal the material fact that the Attorney Generals’ Master Tobacco Settlement Consumers nearly perfectly satisfies Children’s Health Insurance and the settlement continues to needs to be 100% appropriated by S-CHIP to both reduce pathological and gun violence and reduce medical overspending on children who are already fully vaccinated and insured until age 18 if their families do not have adequate income and/or health insurance coverage.  Small cigars and roll-your-own are due the equal protection of the clause 26USC(F)(65)(B)§6423(c) to be reimbursed to the full extent of their loss;  calculated by dividing the excessive tax hike on small cigars and hand-rolling tobacco by the 158 percent, multiplying by the years the excessive rate was in effect and rounding to the nearest whole integer, for small cigars under 27CFR(I)(40)(C)§40.21 and for roll-your own under 27CFR(I)(40)(C)§40.25a for those vendors demonstrating that they have returned to within a 3 percent annual increase of small cigar and rolling tobacco prices in 2008, before Rolling Back the Tobacco Tax of 2009 Act HA-10-10-10.  A September study of a 2010 Gallup Poll found smoking is related to sex, educational levels and race.  24 percent of men smoke, compared with 18 percent of women.  Nearly half of those with a GED and a quarter of those with no high school diploma smoke, compared with only 6 percent of those with a college graduate degree. About 31 percent of those who smoke live below the poverty level, the national average rose as high as 16 percent during the recession. Nearly 30 percent of multiracial adults and 23 percent of American Indian and Alaska Natives smoke (Maugh ’10).  18 percent of the world’s 6.8 billion population – 1.2 billion smokes. For many years, numerous researchers viewed cigarette smoking and other addictive behaviors as exceptions to this most basic law of economics because of the seeming irrationality of these behaviors. A now substantial and rapidly expanding literature, however, clearly indicates that the demands for tobacco products do respond to changes in prices and other factors. The Campaign for Tobacco Free Kids claims every 10 percent increase in the price of cigarettes reduces youth smoking by about seven percent and overall cigarette consumption by about four percent.  The repressiveness of this CHIPRA tax is more likely to drive more smokers to abandon the child-proof method of hand rolled cigarettes and as a result may not be so successful at reducing teen smoking, as other kinder and gentler taxes in the past.  Current reports indicate smoking rates may have even risen slightly in response to the stress of the tax increase and recession. In 1970 the Average cost per pack was $0.38 the Average tax per pack was $0.18, the taxes and segregations of the 1980s and 90s drove many to smoke cheaper rolling tobacco that cost a $1 a day or $3 for 3 days of chemical free tobacco.  The prohibition of the high school student smoking lounge in the 1980s led to a surge in tobacco smoking addicts in the early 1990s, that has subsequently subsided.  In 2009 after the tax the average cost per pack, of both pre-rolled and roll-your-own, had reached $5.33 and the average tax per pack was $2.19.  In 2008 roll-your-own cost between $1 and $2 a day.  After CHIPRA roll-your own tobacco cost $5 a day and temporarily, ostensibly due to unemployment, smoking rates were up.  The federal government would greatly stimulate the economy and probably reduce smoking rates if they targeted, temporary tax relief to refund the low spending smokers of rolling tobacco and small cigars for the excessive federal excise tax of 2009 under 26USC(F)(65)(B)§6423(c). 


(3) Alcohol is a reason for about 30% of hospital admissions and a lot of domestic violence.  Alcoholic liver disease is a clear signal for the well behaved drinker to quit although it is difficult to do so.  People with behavioral problems from alcohol usually, but not always, quit drinking before they get addicted.  Withdrawing alcoholics have a 15% chance of dying from delirium tremons, manifesting as severe anxiety, unless aggressively treated with benzodiazipines such as ativan or liver friendly oxalazapam.  Like alcohol, benzodiazapine withdrawal can also be lethal and requires a gradual reduction of dosage if taken so long that addiction occurs.  Alcohol potentiates barbiturates, the two depressant are synergistic and the practice of using both undoubtedly accounts for the unusually high number of accidental self-poisonings and death from respiratory depression. Each year, at least 10 million Americans consult physicians about their sleep, and about half of them receive prescriptions for sleeping pills.  A hypnotic is a drug that produces sleep, a sedative is one used to relieve tension and anxiety.  The most commonly used hypnotics and sedatives are the barbiturates, they depress brain function, and in large doses the rhythm of respiration.  High doses of barbiturates are essential for veterinary euthanasia and lethal injections used in executions. Traditionally the fatality rate is higher for barbiturates than any other type of addiction (more than 3000 barbiturate suicides per year, or 20% of all suicides in the United States, and more than 1500 deaths from accidental poisonings).  Chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile, Matricaria recutita) and related species are useful for going into a deep, restful sleep, but some people are allergic to chamomile.  The President has said alcohol is worse than marijuana, but it is even more widely consumed, sometimes for health reasons and "to health" is a common toast.  The potentially lethal delirium tremons from alcohol withdrawal however put alcohol in Schedule II because of its high potential for abuse.


Alcoholic liver disease is the most prevalent form of liver disease in most Western countries.  In the U.S. more than 10 million Americans are alcoholics, alcohol causes more than 200,000 deaths annually, the fifth leading cause of death and 25 to 30% of hospitalized patients have problems related to alcohol abuse.  Chronic alcohol consumption causes three distinct, albeit overlapping, forms of alcoholic liver disease (1) hepatic steatosis (fatty liver); (2) alcoholic hepatitis and (3) cirrhosis.  Following even moderate intake of alcohol, small lipid droplets accumulate in hepatocytes.  Short-term ingestion of up to 80 gm of ethanol per day (8 beers or 7 ounces of 80 proof liquor) generally produces mild, reversible hepatic changes, such as fatty liver.  Daily ingestion of 160 gm or more of ethanol for 10 to 20 years is associated more consistently with severe injury; chronic intake of 80 to 160 gm/day is considered a borderline risk for severe injury.  Only 10 to 15% of alcoholics however develop cirrhosis.  Women tend to be more susceptible.  Alcoholic hepatitis tends to appear relatively acutely, usually following a bout of heavy drinking.  Each bout of hepatitis incurs about a 10 to 20% risk of death.  Cirrhosis is likely to appear in about one-third of patients within a few years if there are repeated bouts.   In about 10% of patients, the alcoholic cirrhosis is discovered only at autopsy.  In the end-stage alcoholic, the immediate causes of death are (1) hepatic coma (2) a massive gastrointestinal variceal hemorrhage (3) an intercurrent infection or (4) hepatorenal syndrome following a bout of alcoholic hepatitis.  In about 3 to 6% of cases, death is related to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (Crawford ’94: 857- 861).  Alcohol withdrawal must be promptly diagnosed as being an acute cause of anxiety to the patient, because untreated delirium tremens has a mortality of 15%.  Commonly detoxification is accomplished with chlordiazeposide at a starting dose of 50 mg oraly every 6 hours with extra doses of 25 mg as needed to control symptoms.  After an effective total daily dose has been reached, a taper of 10% total dose per day can be instituted.  If parenteral administration is required, an equivalent dose of lorazepam can be used.  In cases of hepatic dysfunction oxazepam is the drug of choice.  All suspected alcohol abusers should receive thiamine, 100 mg intramuscularly for 7 days (to help prevent Wernicki-Korsakoff encephalopathy) as well as folate, 1 mg daly, and multivitamins (Massie & Sinsheimer '90: 539).  Metronidazole interats badly with alcohol, but is otherwise the most effective antibiotic for the liver.  Treatment of alcoholic liver disease should involve quitting drinking to effect a cure with medicines such as metronidazole.


When massive hepatocullar necrosis occurs and leaves the connective tissue framework intact, almost perfect restitution can occur.  Fibrous tissue is formed in response to inflammation or direct toxic insult to the liver.  With continuing fibrosis, the liver is subdivided into nodules of regenerating hepatocytes surrounded by scar tissue, termed cirrhosis.  Cirrhosis is among the top ten causes of death in the Western world, largely the result of alcohol abuse, chronic hepatitis, biliary disease and iron overload.  This end-stage liver disease is defined by three characteristics (1) Fibrosis is present in the form of delicate bands or broad scars replacing multiple adjacent lobules; (2) the parenchymal architecture of the entire liver is disrupted by interconnecting fibrous scars and (3) parenchymal nodules are created by regeneration of hepatocytes.  The nodules may vary from micronodule (less than 3mm in diameter) to macronodule (3 mm to several centimeters in diameter.  The parenchymal injury and consequent fibrosis are diffuse, extending throughout the liver; focal injury with scarring does not constitute cirrhosis. Progressive fibrosis is the central feature of cirrhosis.  The etiology of cirrhosis varies both geographically and socially in the Western world the most common causes of cirrhosis are alcoholic liver disease (60-70%), viral hepatitis (10%), biliary diseases (5-10%), primary hemochromatosis (5%), Wilson’s disease (rare), Alpha1antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency (rare) and cryptogenic cirrhosis (10-15%).  Infrequent types of cirrhosis include (1) the cirrhosis developing in infants and children with galactosemia and tyrosinosis; (2) the desmosplastic reaction incited by a diffusely infiltrative cancer of the liver (carcinomatous cirrhosis); (3) drug-induced cirrhosis, as with alpha-methyldopa; and (4) syphilis.    The ultimate mechanism of most cirrhotic deaths is (1) progressive liver failure, (2) a complication related to the portal hypertension or (3) development of hepatocellular carcinoma (Sanders '13: Gastroenterology 86-100). 


(4) There have been numerous official reports and studies, every one of which has concluded that marijuana poses no great risk to society and should not be criminalized.  Most experts agree that occasional or moderate use of marijuana is innocuous, they also agree that excessive use can be harmful. Research shows that the two major risks of excessive marijuana use are:  respiratory disease due to smoking and accidental injuries due to impairment.  Marijuana produces a moderate, dose-related decrement in road tracking ability, but is "not profoundly impairing" and "in no way unusual compared to many medicinal drugs." Marijuana's effects at the higher doses preferred by smokers never exceed those of alcohol at blood concentrations of .08%, the minimum level for legal intoxication in stricter states such as California. The study found that unlike alcohol, which encourages risky driving, marijuana appears to produce greater caution.  Marijuana has no known fatalities and is reported as successful in relieving symptoms of addiction, anxiety, tension, stress and depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), HIV/AIDS, post-traumatic stress syndrome (PTSD), insomnia, migraine, movement disorders, multiple sclerosis, digestive problems, inflammation, nausea and vomiting, cancer treatment side-effects, non-severe pain, spasms and convulsions, psoriasis and arthritis.  Because marijuana is being compared to alcohol and tobacco it must be listed as a Schedule III drug due to its acceptable medical uses and psychological addictive quality.Δ’-3,4-trans-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ’-THC) responsible for the psychoactivity of marihuana Cannabis sativa (Cannavaceae) is unique because it is nonnitrogenous.  Although other tetrahydrocannabinols are present and may help induce a euphoric state.  The fresh plant contains almost exclusively cannabidiolic acids, the precursor of the active THCs, which are transformed during the drying and storage of the material, during extraction.  Transformation may also occur during smoking, indeed, the effective dose on smoking 200-250µg/kg, on ingestion it is 300-480µg/kg.  Early use and domestication of Cannabis sativa is lost in the antiquity of Asia.  It was valued as long ago as 6000 BC in China, the Assyrians used it as incense, and in India and Africa the drug played major roles in religion and magic, as an aphrodisiac, and in activities requiring endurance or physical effort.  An early mention of its intoxicating resin dates from 600 BC when Herodotus wrote that the Scythians burned its seeds to produce a narcotic smoke.  Galen recorded the use of hemp in cakes which if eaten in sufficient quantity would induce intoxication.  Its most universal value is as an euphoric narcotic: the user finds himself in a dreamy state of altered consciousness, often with a feeling of well-being, exaltation and inner joy.  But this extremely good feeling may alternate with states of depression where panic and fear of death are experienced.  Commonly ideas are disrupted, uncontrollable and sometimes plentiful.  Vivid hallucinations may be experienced, they sometimes are pleasant and have sexual overtones.  Marihuana has been used to treat glaucoma and it shows antibiotic activity against Gram + bacteria.  Δ’-THC is highly fat soluble and binds to plasma and cellular proteins, its metabolites accumulate in the brain and other tissues, and it affects the central nervous system by altering the turnover rate of the major neurotransmitters norepinephrine, serotonin, and acetylcholine.  Cannabis intoxication prevails almost throughout the world.  It is the opium of the poor.


Marijuana has beneficial uses for many medical conditions. Marijuana improves appetite, reduces nausea and vomiting, which often accompanies chemotherapy.  Marijuana is an effective pain reliever, especially in cases of neuropathic “burning and shooting” types of pain.  The anti-inflammatory properties of the active ingredients of the marijuana plant have also proven useful in treating many medical conditions including arthritis and glaucoma.  One of the most important factors in choosing marijuana is a medicine is its safety.  There are no known fatalities from marijuana and an overdose usually leads to a desire to lay down and go to sleep.  Animal studies have shown that a lethal dose of cannabinoids would be around 40,000 times the typical human dose, around 40 to 80 pounds of buds or their extracts all at once.  Adverse effects are described as feeling overwhelmed, panicked, paranoid or experiencing an increased heart rate.  Some strains, especially those with extremely high THC content, are more likely to affect new patients in these ways.  Strains with high CBD content modulate the effects of THC, so they are less likely to have these adverse affects.  Unhygienic practices, such as the use of chemical pesticides, leave harsh residues on the plant that are dangerous to ingest or inhale.  Molds and fungus also pose a risk to some patients.  So it is best to know where you medicine is coming from. Marijuana is a flowering plant with many different varieties sharing many chemical characteristics.  However the varieties have different effects that provide targeted benefits for a wide range of medical conditions.  Marijuana is a hardy plant with five-fingered leaf.  These leaves grow along strong branches that extend laterally form the main stem.  The flowers develop along the ends of the branches, forming thick clusters that are usually thin and long or bulky.  They produce a sticky crystalline resin and have a strong, sweet-to-pungent aroma.  Some varieties grow tall and lanky, while others grow short and bushy.  Each variety has its own growth rate, appearance and medical usefulness. Marijuana is different from other annual plants because it is “dioecious” meaning male and female flowers grow on separate plants.  When the female plants are not pollinated the flowers remain seedless. These seedless buds are known as “sinsemilla”, Spanish for “without seed” and are distributed as medicine.


Cannabinoids are pharmacologically active compounds.  When you use marijuana the cannabinoids find their way to their target, your body’s cannabinoid receptors.  The cannabinoids bind to one of the receptors.  This might make you feel euphoric and relieves the symptoms of your medical conditions. The major active chemical compounds found in marijuana are: (1) Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ-9-THC) or THC for short, is the most psychoactive cannabinoid found in marijuana.  THCA (tetrahydrocannabinolic acid) is highly concentrated in the flowering clusters or buds.  It converts to the more active form, THC, as it dries. Cannabidol (CBD) is the second most predominant cannabinoid in marijuana.  This compound continues to provoke interest for its therapeutic value.  It has little or no psychoactive properties.  Researchers and patients have begun to focus on the beneficial effects of using THC and CBD together, as well as CBD’s individual effect on diseases and afflictions.  CBD reduces anxiety and panic in some panic in some patients.  CBD is anti-inflammatory, sedative, and a neuroprotective agent.  Medical demand is high for CBD-rich strains so marijuana breeders have begun producing high CBD level plants.  Cannabigerolic acid is a chemical precursor to THC and CBD.  Cannabinnol (CBN) is the third most prevalent chemical compound in marijuana, cannabinol is the incidental product of the chemical breakdown of THC.  You may find higher levels of CBN in improperly stored marijuana resulting in weakened, diminished medical effect.  Terpenoids are plant-produced odor molecules resulting in marijuana’s distinct aroma.  They affect the quality of the experience by altering THC’s effects.  They determine whether the effect is relaxing energizing or bubbly.  The terpenoids alter these effects of the cannabinoids pharmacologically.  Marijuana also has over 20 known flavonoids, a large class of water soluble plant pigments that contribute to plant color.  Marijuana has unique flavonoids – dubbed cannaflavins – that have both anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.  Flavonoids may immobilize viruses and allergens.  In California and Colorado, patients using medical marijuana have the added security of laboratory-tested marijuana.  Not only does the testing lab certify a hygienic product, but it also measures the levels of THC, CBD, and CBN in the medicine, which provides patients with more information.  In places with a legal market, lab testing has become industry standard, pushing growers to produce clean and healthful medicine. 


The effects of marijuana are produced by a cannabinoid receptor system in the body consisting of at least two receptor types: CB1 and CB2.  CB1 receptors are found exclusively in the brain.  They are concentrated in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex which controls memory and cognition.  CB1 receptors interact with marijuana’s active compounds to produce its psychoactive effects including the euphoric, blissful state that often makes pain more manageable.  CB2 receptors are termed “peripheral receptors” because they are found outside the brain, primarily in the immune system and organs, especially the spleen and in white blood cells.  They may be responsible for cannabinoids’ other effects, including the reduction of inflammation.   Some studies indicate beneficial effects from marijuana on neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s Parkinson’s and Huntington’s diseases.  Endocannabinoids are substances produced naturally by your body that activate the CB1 and CB2 receptors to regulate body processes and provide relief from stress and discomfort.  The principal endocannabinoid is arachidonylethanolamide, or anandamide (AEA).  This naturally occurring lipid is a neurotranmitter found it the brains of all animals on the planet except insects.  The endocannabinoid system has multiple functions including regulating immunity, inflammation, neurotoxicity, blood pressure, appetite, gastrointestinal function, glaucoma, epilepsy, depression and stress.  Marijuana has been reported as successful in relieving symptoms of addiction, anxiety, tension, stress and depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD),  HIV/AIDS, post-traumatic stress syndrome (PTSS), insomnia, migraine, movement disorders, multiple sclerosis, digestive problems, inflammation, nausea and vomiting, cancer treatment side-effects, pain, spasms and convulsions, psoriasis and arthritis (Sanders '13: Neurology 31-33).  The superiority of legal marijuana to either medical marijuana or prohibition on human health is made obvious in the Super Bowl XLVIII.


4. A Congressional Holiday against Torture with Pay


Since the 111th Congress the United States is no longer protected with penalties for torture under 18USC(113C)§2340A that has been doctored to state,

"(a) Whoever “outside the United States” commits or attempts to commit torture shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than 20 years, or both, and if death results to any person from conduct prohibited by this subsection, shall be punished by death or imprisoned for any term of years or for life. (b) Jurisdiction.— There is jurisdiction over the activity prohibited in subsection (a) if—(1) the alleged offender is a national of the United States; or (2) the alleged offender is present in the United States, irrespective of the nationality of the victim or alleged offender. (c) A person who conspires to commit an offense under this section shall be subject to the same penalties (other than the penalty of death) as the penalties prescribed for the offense, the commission of which was the object of the conspiracy." It is necessary to reinstate criminal penalties as required under Arts. 2 & 4 of the CAT that states, Art 2 Each State Party shall take effective legislative, administrative, judicial or other measures to prevent acts of torture in any territory under its jurisdiction. No exceptional circumstances whatsoever, whether a state of war or a threat of war, internal political in stability or any other public emergency, may be invoked as a justification of torture. An order from a superior officer or a public authority may not be invoked as a justification of torture.  Art. 4 Each State Party shall ensure that all acts of torture are offences under its criminal law. The same shall apply to an attempt to commit torture and to an act by any person which constitutes complicity or participation in torture. Each State Party shall make these offences punishable by appropriate penalties which take into account their grave nature. The phrase “outside the United States” must be repealed from 18USC(113C)§2340A(a), to ensure that all acts of torture are offences under its criminal law.


A Congressional Holiday against Torture with Pay


To correct federal torture statute so as to comply with Arts. 2, 4 and 14 of the Convention against Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment of 1984.   


To Amend Title 22 Foreign Relations and Intercourse (a-FRAI-d) to Title 22 Foreign Relations (FR-EE).


To abolish the Court of International Trade of the United States (COITUS) and create Customs Court (CC).


To abolish U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Service (USCIS) and create U.S. Customs and Naturalization Service (USNS).


To abolish the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and create U.S. Customs.


Be the federal police finance and Office Intellectual Property Enforcement Coordinator, Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) and Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (ATF) abolished and employees transferred to the Department of Commerce, Department of Justice and to a new Drug Evaluation Agency (DEA) and Center for Alcohol, Tobacco and Marijuana (ATM) in the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) under 5USCIIIB(35)I§3503.


When Congress has agreed to correct these errors they are welcome to return to work for President Barack Obama this FY2014 re-dedicated to the repeal of the Jim Crow laws codified in Sections 2-5 of Amendment XIV of 1868 protecting tribal tax exemptions under Section 1.