Hospitals & Asylums 








Military Diplomacy (MD)


Test Questions


To supplement Chapter One Navy Hospitals, Naval Home, Army and other Naval Hospital, and Hospital Relief for Seamen and Others ¤1-40 for transfer to Chapter 10 Armed Forces Retirement Home ¤400-435To salute the change of the name of the Department of Defense (DoD) to the Military Department (MD).  The MD concludes Secretary of Defense Transfer Order No. 40 of July 22, 1949 in conjunction with the graduation of the Public Health Department (PHD) from the Department of Education Reorganization Act of 1978. To prohibit the use of force, hostile environmental modification and biological experimentation and be honorably discharged.  The US Military employs around 2.1 million soldiers down from a wartime high of 2.8 million with 765,000 Full Time Equivalents (FTEs) and declining.  Since its foundation the US military has suffered nearly 1.3 million casualties in 13 wars.  There are more than 27 million US veterans. To reduce the US nuclear arsenal from 10,000 warheads, to no more than 1,700 to 2,200 nuclear warheads by 2012 and ultimately eliminate them.  To abolish Other Defense Civil Programs, deducting the amount from that year's undistributed offsetting receipts before 2009, and Allowances rows from OMB historical outlays by agency table 4.1 to reduce the deficit and debt since 2009. To sell surplus military bases and assets to increase net revenues and reduce expenses.  To rule Overseas Contingency Operations (OCO) non-add for the benefit of both $500 billion sides of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) whereas liberal democracies tend to be more peaceful than authoritarian or totalitarian states and do not attack other democracies.  To veto Chapter VII of the UN Charter and promote humanitarian missions that pay payroll and corporate taxes, less social insurance and deductibles, to any occupied developing nation.  To fire the National Institute of Disability Independent Living and Research (NIDILR) under the Slavery Convention of 1926 for the written portion and Nuremberg Code of 1949 in regards to nonconsensual biological experimentation on stroke risk posed by 'lucid dream' substance. To elect a harmless Ňclass president of the disabledÓ to publish a Disability and Independent Living (DIL) webpage in the Administration for Community Living (ACL) under the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities of 2006 and save the Disability Insurance (DI) Trust Fund from depletion with the Social Security Amendments of January 1, 2016. To instruct the Social Security Administration by the summer solstice or confirm the HA disability beneficiary Commissioner for a two year term to harmonize the adjustment of the OASDI tax rate and tax the rich to end poverty by 2020 or reduce poverty by half and eliminate child poverty by 2020 if the federal budget cannot be balanced with a $100 billion maximum allowable deficit (mad) in FY 2017 as directed by HA under Art. 2(2) of the US Constitution. To pardon Rod Blagojevich and Chelsea Manning. Civilians are compensated for any injury, casualty or damage caused by State action. To surpass the Marine Corp Physical Fitness Test (PFT) 50-100 push-ups, 50-100 crunches and 3 mile run.


Be the Democratic and Republican (DR) two party system Abolished


1st Draft 20 August 2004, amended 4 times on both Memorial and VeteranŐs Day until the 6th Draft Memorial Day, 28 May 2007, 7th Draft Memorial Day 26 May 2008, 8th 25 May 2009, 9th 7 December 2009 National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day, 10th National Defense Transportation Day 20 May 2011, 11th 1 May 2012, 12th 5 May 2015


1.This Act supplement the contents of Title 24 Chapter One Navy Hospitals, Naval Home, Army and other Naval Hospital, and Hospital Relief for Seamen and Others ¤1-40 for eventual transfer to Chapter 10 Armed Forces Retirement Home ¤400-435 and dedicate a new Chapter to renaming the Department of Defense (DoD) to the Military Department (MD).  The United States has the largest military in the world.  The United States military is an all-volunteer force.  The US Military employs around 2.1 million soldiers down from a wartime high of 2.8 million with 765,000 Full Time Equivalents (FTEs) and declining.  The end strength of the FY2017 budget funds an Army of 460,000 soldiers in the active Army, 335,000 soldiers in the Army National Guard, and 195,000 soldiers in the Army Reserve in FY 2017 – comprising 56 total Army brigade combat teams and associated enablers – and a Marine Corps of 182,000 active-duty Marines and 38,500 Marine reservists.  For the Navy, the budget continues to grow the size, and, importantly, the capability, of the battle fleet; which grows from 280 ships today to 308 ships at the end of the FYDP and provides for 380,900 active-duty and reserve sailors in FY 2017.  The budget also supports an Air Force of 491,700 active-duty, Reserve and National Guard Airmen, and includes 55 tactical fighter squadrons in FY 2017. Since its foundation the US military is recorded to have suffered over 1,128,100 casualties. A war is defined as a conflict in which more than 1,000 people died.  In some peaceful years the entire million soldier army doesnŐt suffer any work related fatalities. To balance the federal budget the Department must limit spending to $500 billion annually for the rest of the decade.  This is not as difficult as it sounds.  The Department has built up its arsenal and investment portfolio while at war.  $60 billion can be saved from maintenance costs by complying with the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT).  Surplus military bases, both foreign and domestic, must be legitimately sold, for savings of another $25 to $75 billion in maintenance, plus revenues from the sale of land.  The Department must cut costs, sell off foreign and surplus bases, scrap outdated weapons and programs, terminate hostile military environmental modification and biological research and be more accountable.


 2. The Army, Navy, and Marine Corps were established in 1775, in concurrence with the American Revolution. On June 30, 1775, the Second Continental Congress established 69 Articles of War to govern the conduct of the Continental Army.  The War Department was established in 1789, and was the precursor to what is now the Department of Defense.  On April 10, 1806, the first United States Congress enacted 101 Articles of War, which were not significantly revised until over a century later.  The Department of Defense (DoD) was named in the Secretary of Defense Transfer Order No. 40 of July 22, 1949.  The military justice system continued to operate under the Articles of War until May 31, 1951, when the Uniform Code of Military Justice went into effect.  In 1974 the draft was abolished by the Military Selective Service Act. The President of the United States is the Commander-in-Chief, the Secretary of Defense the highest ranking civilian military official and Joint Forces Command is the highest level of military leadership.  The war-making power of the President is limited by Congress. The name Military Department (MD) achieves fulfillment of Secretary of Defense Transfer Order No. 40 of July 22, 1949 in pursuit of a more perfectly civilian Secretary of the United Nations (SUN). MD is an honor the Cabinet may bestow upon the American people in conjunction with the graduation of the Public Health Department (PHD) from the Department of Education Reorganization Act of 1978.  All peacekeeping missions must be authorized by the UN Security Council. Since 1945, UN Peacekeepers have undertaken 60 field missions and negotiated 172 peaceful settlements that have ended regional conflicts, and enabled people in more than 45 countries to participate in free and fair elections. The approved DPKO budget for 2005-06 was approximately $5 billion. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) is an alliance of 26 countries from North America and Europe established in the Washington Treaty of 1949 to provide common commitment among sovereign democratic states in support of the security for all of its members.  The Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE) of 1992 limits the numbers of conventional armaments and equipment to 40,000 battle tanks, 60,000 armored combat vehicles, 40,000 pieces of artillery, 13,600 combat aircraft and 4,000 attack helicopters.  The United States has complied with the Nuclear Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT) to reduce their 10,000 warhead arsenal, to no more than 1,700 and 2,200 nuclear warheads by 2012 for $50 billion annual savings.  The Overseas Contingency Operations (OCO) should be completely terminated and non-add for the benefit of both $500 billion sides of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) whereas liberal democracies tend to be more peaceful than authoritarian or totalitarian states and do not attack other democracies. 


3. War is defined as a military conflict, either international or domestic, that takes the lives of more than 1,000 people.  War is a prolonged state of violent, large-scale conflict involving two or more groups of people.  Since the founding of the United Nations in 1945 the world has only seen 26 days without war.  The United States has fought a total of 13 wars and suffered an estimated 1.3 million casualties in thirteen wars.  Nearly half of US casualties were incurred by the Civil War when 625,000 US  and Confederate soldiers lost their lives.  25,000 were killed and another 25,000 wounded in the American Revolutionary War (1775-83).  In the War of 1812-15 an estimated 20,000 US soldiers died and 4,505 were wounded. In the Mexican war (1846-48) 13,282 US soldiers died and 13,800 were wounded. In the Civil War (1861-65) an estimated 625,000 US soldiers died, 364,511 from the Union and 260,000 from the Confederates, 281,881 Union soldiers were wounded. In the Spanish-American War 345 US soldiers died, 1,645 were wounded and 2,565 diseased, at least 10,660 Cubans were killed and 3,560 Spaniard were killed and 13,500 wounded or diseased. In the Philippine War 1898-1902 4,196 US soldiers died and 2,930 were wounded, an estimated 16,000 Philippine soldiers died and 250,000 – 1 million civilians lost their lives.  In World War I (1917-18) 116,516 US soldiers died and 204,002 were wounded, an estimated 19 million civilians were killed, including 9 million soldiers from both sides, and 21 million wounded.  In World War II 1941-45 405,399 US soldiers died and 670,846 were wounded, an estimated 55 million civilians were killed.  In the Korean War (1950-53) 36,516 US soldiers died and 103,284 were wounded, more than 2 million Koreans died.  In the Vietnam War 1964-73 58,151 US soldiers died and 153,303 were wounded, more than 2 million Vietnamese were killed.  In the first Gulf War (1990-91) 299 US soldiers died and 467 were wounded, an estimated 25,000 civilians were killed.  In the War in Afghanistan (2001-11) over a thousand US soldiers died, at least 4,565 were wounded, and 30,000-50,000 civilians have been killed. In the Iraq War (2003-10) 4,369 US soldiers died and at least 31,572 were wounded, an estimated 1.3 million Iraqis died. War and armed conflicts in general are traditionally brought to an end through the ratification of treaties of peace.  Although history is rife with conflict, some peoples, regions and nations have enjoyed periods of peace that have lasted generations, such as Sweden (1814–present), Switzerland (1848–present) and Costa Rica (1949–present) who following 1949 abolished its army. 


4. Advances in military technology such as rapid fire rifles and explosives have made the 20th century the most violent in human history.  Around the world nearly three times as many people were killed in conflict in the 20th century as in the previous four, not very peaceful, centuries combined, with 109.7 million conflict related deaths, 4.35% of the general population based on mid-century population.  Mega murder, the death of more than 1 million people occurred in the US occupation of the Philippines (1898-1911), 19 million died in WWI (1914-18), 55 million in WWII (1940-1946), 2 million in each Korea (1950-54), Vietnam (1962-74), Cambodia and the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan (1980-88), the Iraq war (2003-2010) passed the million casualty mark in 2009.  The worst catastrophe in terms of human life were the domestic repression of communist regimes under Chairman Mao that took 40 million lives and Stalin who killed 50 million of his own people. Even in times of war, disease is the most prolific killer of both soldiers and civilians; however medical advances have made it so that more soldiers are hospitalized for disease than combat related injuries. Since WWII and dŽtente world poverty has overtaken war as the greatest source of avoidable human misery.  More people, some 300 million, have died from hunger and remediable diseases in peacetime in the seventeen years since the end of the Cold War than have perished from wars, civil wars and government repression over the entire twentieth century.  Some 830 million human beings are chronically undernourished, 1.1 billion lack access to safe water, 2.6 billion lack access to basic sanitation, 2 billion lack access to essential drugs, 1 billion lack adequate shelter, and 2 billion lack electricity, 774 million adults are illiterate and 218 million children between five and seventeen do wage work outside of the household.  The great catastrophe of human poverty is ongoing, as is the annual toll of 18 million lives.  We face victims of natural calamities, victims of historical or contemporary wrongs such as colonialism, slavery and genocide, some committed by our own country, and victims of domestic injustice associated with race, gender, ethnic identity, religion or social class.  Human rights and market-oriented development creates the norms and values that explain the democratic peace.  Belief in human rights may make people in democracies reluctant to go to war, especially against other democracies. Modern civilian welfare programs such as social security are modeled after veteranŐs pensions to replace spending on warfare in our fight for human survival.  The decline in colonialism is also a cause for peace.


Department of Defense Topline Since September 11th Attacks


Fiscal Year

























































Fiscal Year




















































Source: DoD Budget Request FY17 1-5; OMB Defense Row, Outlay by Agency Table 4.1


5. President Barack Obama sent Congress a proposed budget request of $582.7 billion in discretionary budget authority to fund the Department of Defense in Fiscal Year 2017 (FY 2017). The FY 2017 budget of $582.7 billion complies with the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015, giving the department both funding stability and protection from the damage of sequestration in FY 2016 and FY 2017.  Within the confines of this negotiated amount, the budget request reflects the priorities necessary for our force today and in the future to best serve and protect our nation in a rapidly changing security environment.  The base udget of $523.9 billion includes an increase of $2.2 billion over the FY 2016 enacted budget of $521.7 billion.  As specified in the budget agreement, DoDŐs FY 2017 overseas contingency operations budget is $58.8 billion, nearly the same as the FY 2016 enacted level of $58.6 billion. The combined request represents a total increase of $2.4 billion, or less than one percent over FY 2016 enacted levels. The FY 2017 budget reflects recent strategic threats and changes that have taken place in Asia, the Middle East and Europe.  Russian aggression, terrorism by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) and others, and ChinaŐs island building and claims of sovereignty in international waters. The FY 2017 budget request is consistent with the FY 2016 budget request in planning to adjust the size of the force over the next several years to a level of 980,000 soldiers, 308 ships, 182,000 active-duty Marines, and 55 Air Force tactical fighter squadrons.  Beginning with the FY 2013 budget, the Defense Department began implementing a decadent $487 billion, 10-year cut in spending consistent with $500 billion annual federal spending caps instituted by the Budget Control Act of 2011. After saving a considerable sum of money complying with Nuclear Non-Proliferation (NPT) warhead decommissioning goals in 2012 the FY 2015 DoD budget request was able to reduce military spending. The FY 2015 DoD budget request could not accept sequestration levels and the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015 funded the Department at about $116 billion more than projected sequestration levels over the 5-year period.  The Fiscal Year (FY) 2017 budget submission complies with the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015 and sustains the alignment of program priorities and resources with the 2014 Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR) and supports military operations in Afghanistan and other areas of the world to counter threats from terrorists. The DepartmentŐs response to recent events, which include the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) offensive into Iraq and Syria, the Russian FederationŐs aggressive acts and attempts to intimidate neighboring countries, ChinaŐs continued anti-access military modernization programs and its island-building and sovereignty claims in international waters, as well as high-profile cyberattacks, have placed additional pressures on DoD that would be extremely difficult to resource should the Department be forced to return to sequester level funding after FY 2017. The FY 2017 budget request and the enacted FY 2016 budget come after several years of declining defense budgets. This defense drawdown, which began with the FY 2010 budget, was the fifth major defense drawdown since the end of World War II (WWII), following those after WWII and the Korean War, the Vietnam War, and the Cold War. While this decline largely reflects a significant drawdown of U.S. presence in Iraq and Afghanistan, it occurred in a period of considerable instability and was driven to a substantial extent by the restrictions of the Budget Control Act (BCA) of 2011 rather than by strategic considerations. After the NPT goals of 2012 there has been little to justify further spending reductions of an adequately strategic nature and it is hoped to abolish OCO spending in FY 2018 and hopefully rule it historically non-add.


6. Nations at war operate on a deficit and the people tire of the burden and want peace.  In WWII the military was 34.5% of the GDP and 82.5% of the federal budget.  After WWII the federal government immediately balanced the budget.  The Korean War was fought effortlessly.  The deficit did not become significant until the Vietnam War when it was 3.2% of the GDP in 1968 and 2.4% in 1971.  During the Korean War military spending was 11.7% of the GDP and 57.2% of the federal budget.  During the Vietnam War military spending was 8.9% of the GDP and 43.4% of the federal budget.  During Gulf War military spending was 4.5% of the GDP and 19.8% of federal spending.  Currently during the Global War on Terrorism military spending is 3.9% of the GDP and 19.3% of federal spending.  During the Clinton administration defense spending was kept at less than $300 billion and the number of active duty troops declined to less than 1 million and there was peace except for the former Yugoslavia.  In 1982 the federal budget deficit exceeded $100 billion, 3.7% of the GDP.  Dramatically increasing military spending caused the deficit to rise as high as $208 billion in 1983, 6% of the GDP, a post WWII record, and $238 billion in 1986, 5.4% of the GDP.   Defense spending increased to $300 billion in 1989.  An effort was made in the 1990s to keep military spending less than $300 billion and by 1998 the budget deficit was only 0.3% and in 1999 and 2000 there was actually a budget surplus, of $1.8 billion and $87 billion respectively, the first since 1960.  The suicide attacks of 9-11 triggered the nearly $1 trillion cost of the War against Terror and military spending increased from $298 billion in 2000 to a high of $721 billion in FY 2011, when the war supplemental terminated, the Secretary limited spending in FY 2012 $517 billion.  The Department is one of the largest organizations in the world. It executes a budget more than twice that of the worldŐs largest corporation, has more personnel than the populations of a third of the worldŐs countries, and provides medical care for as many patients as the largest health management organization.  Its FY 2006 financial statements included $1.4 trillion in assets and nearly $2 trillion in liabilities. The Military Retirement Fund accounts for 15 percent of the Department-wide assets and 49 percent of the liabilities. The size ($712.1 billion for FY 2011) and complexity of the Defense budget—i.e., $548.9 billion of discretionary base budget authority (BA) and $159.3 billion of discretionary BA for overseas contingency operations (OCO) that cost exactly as much of the entire Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the nations they occupy.  The budgets usually include an increase of 1.4 percent for military basic pay. 


7. The experience with balancing the budget at the turn of the millennium and in FY 2006 reinforce the neo-classical theory that levies for war cause the government to get into debt and that by restraining military spending a little bit, dramatic progress can be made in both eliminating the budget deficit and world peace. By reducing defense spending in FY 2006 to $470 billion from $501 billion the deficit was miraculously reduced from $320 billion to $250 billion. A considerable amount of this savings, $30-$50 billion can be attributed to the return of surplus funds allocated the military, the rest is probably the result of the improved functioning of the real economy as the result of the flight of military subsidies. Throughout the 1990s military spending was kept below the cap of $300 billion, most people considered this too high. In the first decade of the 21st century all discipline was removed from military spending under the guise of the levy for the Global War on Terror. It is not too late to restore limits to military spending. It is logical that after a decade of engorging themselves inflation would cause military spending to increase into the next category, $500 billion and all excess funds would be annually returned to the General Treasury to eliminate the deficit.  he DepartmentŐs financial management environment includes an estimated $1.4 trillion in assets and nearly $2 trillion in liabilities that remain on the Government Accountability OfficeŐs high risk list. The federal government has a record budget deficit. In January 2001, the Congress and budget office predicted that the federal budget would run a surplus of in excess of $5.6 trillion between 2002 and 2011. After tax cuts, a terror attack, a recession and a war in Iraq the budget office predicted deficits for five years Oct. 2001-2006 totaling $2.2 trillion. Subsequently, military spending has been concealed in incredible deficits exceeding a trillion dollars a year. The responsibility to balance the federal budget compels the Department to limit their expenses to less than $500 billion a year. In 1918, during World War I, the top rate of the income tax rose to 77 percent to help finance the war effort. It dropped sharply in the post-war years, down to 24 percent in 1929, and rose again during the Depression. During World War II, Congress introduced payroll withholding and quarterly tax payments. In WWII the military was 34.5% of the GDP and 82.5% of the federal budget. During the Korean War it was 11.7% of the GDP and 57.2% of the federal budget. During the Vietnam War it was 8.9% of the GDP and 43.4% of the federal budget. During Gulf War it was 4.5% of the GDP and 19.8% of federal spending. During the Global War on Terrorism military spending is 3.9% of the GDP and 19.3% of federal spending.


Lead Military Spenders



United States

$518.1 billion (FY04 est.) (2005 est.)

4.06% (FY03 est.) (2005 est.)



$81.48 billion (2005 est.)

4.3% (2005 est.)



$45 billion FY06 (2005)

2.6% FY06 (2005 est.)



$44.31 billion (2005 est.)

1% (2005 est.)


United Kingdom

$42.87 billion (2003)

2.4% (2003)



$28.83 billion (2003)

1.8% (2004)


Korea, South

$21.06 billion FY05 (2005 est.)

2.6% FY05 (2005 est.)



$19.04 billion (2005 est.)

2.5% (2005 est.)


Saudi Arabia

$18 billion (2002)

10% (2002)



$17.84 billion (2005 est.)

2.7% (2005 est.)



$12.155 billion (2003)

5.3% (2003)



$9.91billion (2003)

1.2% (2003)



$9.45 billion (2005 est.)

7.7% (2005 est.)



$9.408 billion (2004)

1.6% (2004)

Source: CIA World Fact Book 2006 before the concealment of military expenditures in 2007


8. About $1.3 trillion goes into the worldŐs military expenses annually; about half of this from the worldŐs last remaining superpower, the United States, discounting the combined might of Europe, which the United States should not get entangled in. Effort must be made to limit the burden of military spending on the United States so that it is more proportional with the rest of the world. The US is responsible for crudely 50% of the +/- $1.25 trillion in gross aggregate military expenditure worldwide. The USA has the largest armed services budget of any nation in the world with $611 billion (inc. veteranŐs benefits) expenditure in 2006. The next largest national military is that of the PeopleŐs Republic of China that cost $81 billion in 2005. The European Union, including prospective members except Russia has a combined military spending of $558 billion. The EU is clearly the source of the arms race. At present the EU is our ally and the US military must enter into bilateral arms and spending reductions aiming for $500 billion military spending on both sides of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).  China has about 1.4 million ground forces personnel with approximately 400,000 deployed to the three military regions opposite Taiwan. China has nuclear capabilities, a large air force, numerous missiles and attack vehicles. China is a serious military power. China has however embarked upon an ambitious economic agenda that is succeeding so military domination is not their agenda. Consistent with the provisions of the Taiwan Relations Act, Public Law 96-8 (1979), the United States continues to make available defense articles, services, and training assistance to enable Taiwan to maintain a sufficient self defense capability. ChinaŐs leaders describe the initial decades of the 21st Century as a Ň20-year period of opportunity,Ó meaning that regional and international conditions will generally be peaceful and conducive to economic, diplomatic, and military development and thus to ChinaŐs rise as a great power. Over the past decade, as the PeopleŐs Liberation Army transformed from an infantry-dominated force with limited power projection ability into a more modern force with long-range precision strike assets. The Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) estimates ChinaŐs total military related spending for 2007 could be as much as $85 billion to $125 billion.


25 Nations Receiving US Military Assistance in Excess of $3 million




Military Assistance


% of Total



Military Assistance 2007

% of Total














































Bosnia & Herzegovina








El Salvador
















































United States



Source: Empirical US Foreign Assistance Statistics at the Close of the American Imperial Century: An Act to Secure a Voluntary 1 percent ODA Tax on Income HA-31-9-10


9. The Department administrates an estimated $50-$100 billion abroad annually to support US military bases and foreign military assistance, not including war time surges. In 2005 the US Military had around 737 bases in 63 countries. Brand new military bases have been built since September 11, 2001 in seven countries. In total, there are normally 255,065 US military personnel deployed abroad, not including war time surges, with a total of 845,441 different buildings and equipment. The United States is authorized to administrate only $400 million of foreign military assistance every year, $800 million split 50/50 between DoD and State, under 22USC(32)¤2312 on the stipulation that; No defense articles shall be furnished on a grant basis to any country at a cost in excess of $3,000,000 except under 22USC(32)¤2314 whereby defense articles under the Arms Export Control Act 22 USC(35)III¤2751 will not get into the hands of people who are not employed by the government and that defense stockpiles are kept at US bases and value less than $50 million. The primary distinction between military assistance and deployment overseas is that foreign military assistance is given as a grant or loan to the government of a foreign nation for the development of their self-defense capabilities. At $13,025 million in 2007 the US clearly administrates more than the $800 million limit on foreign military assistance.


10. President Barack H. Obama accepted the Nobel Peace Prize on December 10, 2009 for his vision of a nuclear weapon free world and his struggle to make friends rather than enemies.  We hope the United States will capitalize upon the spirit of this award to make peace and stay at peace.  Peace is a state of harmony, defined as the absence of hostility. While the economy may be elusive peace is a legitimate objective.  The traditional political definition of peace and the very word itself originated among the ancient Romans who defined peace, pax, as absentia belli, the absence of war.  This term is applied to describe a cessation of or lapse in violent international conflict; in this international context, peace is the opposite of war.  The concept of peace also applies to the state of people within their respective geopolitical entities, as civil war, state-sponsored genocide, terrorism, and other violence are all threats to peace. Peace can also describe a relationship between any parties characterized by respect, justice, and goodwill.  The democratic peace theory, liberal peace theory, is a theory and related empirical research which holds that democracies - usually, liberal democracies - never or almost never go to war with one another, and that systematic violence is in general less common within democracies.  Studies show that democratic states are more likely than autocratic states to win the wars.  Market-oriented development creates the norms and values that explain the democratic peace. When opportunities to contract in the market are widespread, as in market-oriented developed countries, a culture of contracting emerges that encourages shared respect for individualism, negotiations, compromise, respect for the law, and equality before the law. Constrained by voters, democratically elected leaders in market-oriented developed countries abide by these norms. Mahatma Gandhi's conception of peace, ahimsa (non-violence) was not as an end, but as a means: "There is no way to peace; peace is the way" 


Sanders, Tony J. Chapter 1 Military Diplomacy. 13th Ed. Hospitals & Asylums HA-30-5-16 214 pgs.  

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