Hospitals & Asylums 








New investigational animal drugs for the amelioration of the WNS and EHM epidemics HA-25-5-11


By Anthony J. Sanders


Notice of claimed investigational exemption for new animal drug 
Part I Lamisil AT spray for the treatment of white-nose syndrome in hibernating bats?
Part II Valacyclovir for the treatment of equine herpesvirus myeloencephalophy?
Conflict of Interest with the Deepwater Horizon Overpayment
2011 is global veterinary crisis.  First, red wing blackbirds (grackles) fell out of the sky on New Year's Eve in Arkansas, Louisiana and Kentucky, 
it appears that the birds died of blunt force trauma - possibly from being hit by a truck. Blackbirds are certainly behaving strangely; three separate 
blackbirds swooped low and brushed passed me, as I was walking in the park yesterday.  Within days of the grackle die off, thousands of fish 
washed up dead in an Arkansas river. Then it was two million fish in the Chesapeake Bay, 150 tons of red tilapia in Vietnam, 40,000 crabs in Britain 
and other places across the world. In the past eight months, the USGS has logged 95 mass wildlife die-offs in North America. The list includes 900 
some turkey vultures that seemed to drown and starve in the Florida Keys, 4,300 ducks killed by parasites in Minnesota, 1,500 salamanders done in 
by a virus in Idaho, 2,000 bats that died of rabies in Texas, and the still mysterious death of 2,750 sea birds in California.  On average, 163 such 
events are reported to the federal government each year, according to USGS records.  Unusual or not the news reports of deadly epidemics of animal 
diseases demand a cure. Two ongoing outbreaks in particular could be treated if information regarding effective pharmaceuticals were disseminated.  
First, in May 2011 the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) released a National Plan for Assisting States, Federal Agencies, and Tribes in Managing 
White-Nose Syndrome (WNS) in Bats caused by the fungus Geomycetes destructans that has taken the lives of over a million hibernating bats in 
affected caves. Second, an outbreak of potentially fatal equine herpesvirus myeloencephalophy (EHM) caused by equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) began 
at a horse show in Ogden, Utah, April 29-May 8, with at least 33 horses sick around the country.  New animal drugs for investigational use for the 
treatment of animal epidemics of known etiology are (1) Lamasil AT (micanozole nitrate), or safer and more effective antifungal spray, to sterilize bat 
caves in danger of WNS and/or bat weight specific doses of oral Ketoconazole (Nizoral) 200 mg tablets, around 1/100 of 1 mg and (2) Valacyclovir 
(Valtrex) 30-40 mg/kg twice to three times daily for 7 days to treat EHM.  Sponsors of investigations, are directed to submit in triplicate a “Notice of 
Claimed Investigational Exemption for a New Animal Drug” to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) under 21CFR§511.1(b)(4).
Part I Lamisil AT spray for the treatment of White-nose syndrome in hibernating bats?
Little brown bats with white-nose syndrome, New York

Credit: Nancy Heaslip, New York Department of Environmental Conservation


White-nose syndrome was first observed in four caves centered roughly 30 km west of Albany, New York, in the winter of 2006/2007.  Subsequently, over a million hibernating bats have died.  Overall colony losses at the most closely monitored sites have reached 95 percent within 2 to 3 years of initial detection. As of April 2011, WNS has been detected in 6 of the 9 species of hibernating bats that occur in the affected region (Connecticut, Delaware, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Vermont, Virginia, West Virginia, and the Canadian provinces: New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Ontario, and Quebec). Species known to be susceptible to WNS thus far are the little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus), Indiana bat (M. sodalis), northern long-eared bat (M. septentrionalis), eastern small-footed bat (M. leibii), tricolored bat (Perimyotis subflavus), and big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus). Three additional bat species were found in 2010 that tested positive for the presence of Geomyces destructans, the fungus associated with WNS, but not with the pathological invasion of the skin that is characteristic of the disease. These bats, the gray bat (M. grisescens), the cave myotis (M. velifer), and the southeastern myotis (M. austroriparius), were found in Missouri, Oklahoma, and Virginia, respectively, and their discovery could portend the spread of WNS into new regions of the southeastern and western U.S., and beyond, in the near future.  White-nose syndrome was named for the visible presence of a white fungus around the muzzles, ears, and wing membranes of affected bats. Scientists recently identified a previously unknown species of cold-loving fungus (G. destructans) as a consistent pathogen causing skin infection in bats at affected sites. This fungus thrives in low temperatures (5-14º C; 40-55º F) and high levels of humidity (>90 %), conditions characteristic of many bat hibernacula. Pathologic findings thus far indicate that such fungal infections can be detected as early as October, and it is hypothesized that bats affected by WNS arouse from hibernation more frequently, and/or for longer periods than normal, and are prematurely expending the fat reserves they rely on for winter survival. 



Antifungal tests were conducted by the Mycology Laboratory at Wadsworth Center of the New York State Department of Health in Albany, New York identifying many antifungal drugs that work well in the laboratory against Geomycetes destructans at temperature ranges likely to be encountered in bat hibernacula. All five strains of G. destructans had similar antifungal susceptibility profiles. Amphotericin B and four azoles (itraconazole, ketoconazole, posaconazole and voriconazole) were effective at low MICs against G. destructans strains while fluconazole MICs were suggestive of Susceptible-Dose Dependent (S-DD) pattern and flucytosine and all three echinocandins (caspofungin, anidulafungin and micafungin) exhibited relatively high MICs suggestive of resistance.  Although Miconazole Nitrate was not tested, it is an azole, and is likely to be highly effective against G. destructans.  Miconazole nitrate is the standard treatment for athlete's foot in humans and other fungal infections in the skin and ears of cats and dogs.  Miconazole furthermore comes prepared in cans as an antifungal spray that could be easily used to disinfect bat caves.  Human antifungal products available Over-the-counter and advertised for the treatment of athlete’s foot are Lamisil AT Antifungal Spray, Continuous, 4.2 fl oz (125 ml) that sells for $6.99 online and Desenex Antifungal Spray with 2% Miconazole Nitrate, 4 Oz selling for $6.22. Veterinary antifungal products available by prescription are Antifungal Oral Medications Ketoconazole 200mg Tablets Conofite® Spray 1% (miconazole nitrate) 4 oz. costing $10.45 for the treatment of fungal infections in dogs and cats caused by Microsporum canis, M. gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes in dogs and cats and Miconazole 1% Spray 4 oz. $10.45 is used in the treatment of fungal infections of the skin and ears as well as ringworm.  Any scheme for the treatment of infected bats with antifungal drugs faces a number of challenges. The delivery of drugs that have been proven effective in the animal laboratory to an infected population in the wild.  Any proposal for the decontamination of caves requires a careful balance considering the likely deleterious effects on the environment, such as the development of resistant bacteria and the side-effects the drugs in doses sufficient to disinfect a cave, might have on bats (Chaturvedi ’11).  FWS will disinfect the caves with antifungal spray shortly before winter hibernation begins and trained and decontaminated crews will periodically go to the caves throughout the winter to treat infected bats with bat sized doses of antifungal medicine that tends to be deleterious to kidney function when ingested.  Most antifungal medicine comes in the form of topical spray or ointment and new oral antifungal treatments can be very expensive.  But at 1/100 of 1 mg per bat per day the FWS should be able to afford to put some Ketoconazole in the animal feed.  Ketonazole is taken for 2 weeks for Candiasis, 4 weeks for Dermatophytosis, at least 6 months for Blastomycosis, Coccidioidomycosis, Paracoccidioidomycosis Histoplasmosis and to up to a year for Onychomycosis.  Infected bats that have been captured could be rationed 1 mg over the winter months.  The difficulty of putting antifungals in the food of wild bats intensifies efforts to disinfect bat caves with spray cans of Lamisil AT.


List of compounds from Spectrum Plus Compound Library found highly effective at growth inhibition of Geomyces destructans at 6°C and 15°C





Chemical Description

Mode of action


Econazole nitrate


Imidazole class

Inhibition of 14 <alpha>-sterol demethylase and the subsequent blockage of ergosterol biosynthesis; antifungal drug for Athlete's foot, ringworm, etc.


Sulconazole nitrate


Imidazole class

Inhibition of 14 <alpha>-sterol demethylase and the subsequent blockage of ergosterol biosynthesis; antifungal drug for treatment of Athlete's foot, ringworm, etc.


Phenylmercuric acetate


Organomercury compound





Hydroxyquinoline derivative

Antibacterial, antifungal




Pyrimidine analog (heterocyclic aromatic compound)

Noncompetitive inhibition of thymidylate synthase; synthesis of aberrant mRNA and the subsequent inhibition of protein synthesis; cancer drug


Pyrithione Zinc


Coordination complex of Zinc

Antifungal & antibacterial agent


Ciclopirox olamine


Synthetic compound (6-cyclohexyl-1-hydroxy-4-methylpyridin-2(1H)-one)

Topical antifungal for superficial mycoses




Glycoside (from Digitalis purpurea)

Detergent, Biomembrane disruptor




Halogenated hydroxyquinoline

Antibacterial, Antifungal


Benzalkonium chloride


Quaternary ammonium group

Antiseptic, biocide, surfactant,

Source: Chaturvedi S. et al. Antifungal Testing and High-Throughput Screening of Compound Library against Geomyces destructans, the Etiologic Agent of Geomycosis (WNS) in Bats. PLoS One. 2011


The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) has temporarily blocked public access to many caves and mines as a preventative measure aimed at stopping further spread of the disease by humans and created a White Nose Syndrome (WNS) website to coordinate the federal response to the epidemic under the National Environmental Policy Act, the Endangered Species Act, and the Federal Cave Resources Protection Act.  The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 declares a national policy which encourages productive and enjoyable harmony between man and environment; promotes efforts which prevent or eliminate damage to the environment and biosphere and stimulate the health and welfare of man, and enriches the understanding of the ecological systems and natural resources important to the Nation under 42USC(55)§4321  The Endangered Species Act of 1973 provides for interagency cooperation in consultation with the Secretary of the Interior regarding agency actions not likely to jeopardize the continued existence of any endangered species or threatened species or result in the destruction or adverse modification of habitat of such species which is determined by the Secretary, to be critical under 16USC(35)§1536.  The Federal Cave Resources Protection Act of 1988 prohibits anyone who without authorization disturbs, defaces, mars, alters, removes or harms any significant cave or alters the free movement of any animal or plant life into or out of any significant cave located on Federal lands under 16USC(63)§4306.  The Secretary of Interior must approve human intervention with antifungal sprays in bat caves before it is tried in federally protected caves by the FWS WNS clinical researchers.  Information on the whereabouts of caves is kept confidential under 16USC(63)§4304 without the management of the Secretaries under 16USC§4303.  In the meanwhile the Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) can disinfect the bat caves in as few months as Lester M. Crawford D.V.M. Ph.D. was Commissioner of the FDA, 7/18/2005 -9/23/05, before being sentenced to three years’ probation and $90,000 fines on 2/28/07 for lying about stocks that might pose a conflict of interest with the FDA and finally get some antibiotics for their eternal Director Sam Hamilton, who died of a heart attack in February 2010 as well as Allegra for the FWS National Forensic Laboratory permanently quarantined under flu sign, and Allegra-D for the allergy sufferers in the field.


Part II Valacyclovir for the treatment of Equine herpesvirus myeloencephalophy?

Interstate equine herpesvirus myeloencephalophy outbreak as of May 21, 2011

Source: Horsetalk. Seven horses dead from EHV-1, 33 confirmed cases. May 21, 2011

The recent outbreak of neurologic disease equine herpesvirus myeloencephalophy (EHM), caused by equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1), appears related to initial cases at a horse show in Ogden, Utah, April 29-May 8. As of May 22 there have been 33 confirmed cases, of which seven have died or been euthanized, 32 were at the event in Ogden  EHM causes the death of 10-15% of afflicted horses.  Equine herpesvirus-1 (rhinopneumonitis) also causes upper respiratory infections in horses and abortions in pregnant mares. The neurologic disease (EHM) affects the horse's brain and spinal cord and can result in paralysis and death. Clinical signs include incoordination (ataxia) that can progress to the inability to stand, lower leg swelling, the inability to urinate or pass manure, urine dribble, and reduced tail tone. The EHM virus is the most infrequent and potentially devastating form of EHV-1 infections and is difficult to treat once neurologic symptoms are observed.  EHV vaccines are not effective against the neurological form of the disease.  EHV is extremely contagious, and many horses may become latently infected-infecting other horses but may never display symptoms themselves. The EHV-1 virus is transmitted through both direct and indirect contact with infected horses, primarily through nasal secretions and can spread via water buckets, feed tubs, tack, grooming equipment, and even the hands and feet of people caring for affected animals. Follow proper biosecurity measures around the farm to ensure the best protection against an outbreak. Isolate all infected horses, and limit movement of horses on and off the premises. New arrivals should be isolated for three weeks. Grooms should work with isolated animals last.  Make sure horse professionals wear clean clothes and park their vehicles away from the horses.  Minimum isolation precautions include the prevention of fomite transmission through ‘nose to nose’ contact or the indirect transmission of infective nasal secretions by mechanical transmission through stable employees or horse owners. All horse vans and trailers should be thoroughly cleaned and disinfected after use.  The Horse Protection Act of 1970 provides each horse owner, exhibitor, trainer, or other person having  custody of, or responsibility for, any horse at any horse show, horse exhibition, or horse sale or auction, shall allow any Animal and Plant Inspection Service (APHIS) representative to reasonably inspect, detain and treat such horse Equus caballus under 9CFRI§11.4.
Algorithm to establish a rapid ante-mortem laboratory diagnosis of EHV-1 infection in a horse with neurological deficits


Source: Pusterla, N. et al., Equine herpesvirus-1 myeloencephalopathy: A review of recent developments, The Veterinary Journal. August 8,. 2008.


The incubation period of EHV-1 infections is typically one to two days, with clinical signs and fever then occurring over the following 10 days. The neurologic form of the disease typically occurs eight to 12 days after the primary infection. Horses can shed the virus for up to 21 days after they stop showing clinical signs. Disinfect all areas where the disease might have spread, including halters, lip chains, and feed buckets.  Please report any cases or suspect cases to your state/provincial animal health department as soon as possible. The multifocal distribution of lesions caused by neurotropic EHV-1 strains results in considerable variability in clinical presentation and a number of conditions should be included in the differential diagnosis. These include equine protozoal myeloencephalitis, cervical stenotic myelopathy, cervical vertebral instability (‘wobbler’ syndrome), cervical vertebral fracture or other central nervous system (CNS) trauma, neuritis of the cauda equina, fibrocartilaginous infarction, aberrant parasite migration, degenerative myelopathy, togaviral encephalitis (flaviviruses, alphaviruses, West Nile Virus), rabies, botulism, CNS abscessation and a variety of plant and chemical intoxications.  The sudden onset of neurological signs, including ataxia, paresis and urinary incontinence, the involvement of multiple horses and a recent history of fever, abortion, or respiratory disease in an affected horse population are sufficient to make a tentative diagnosis of EHM.  Pyrexia (fever) has consistently been reported as the major clinical sign before the onset of neurological disease but is frequently not present by the time neurologic deficits become apparent.  A diagnosis can be supported by ruling out other conditions, demonstrating xanthochromia and an elevated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein concentration, in identifying or isolating EHV-1 from the respiratory tract, buffy coat or CSF and in demonstrating a 4-fold increase in antibodies using serum neutralizing (SN), complement fixation (CF), or ELISA tests performed on acute and convalescent serum from affected or in-contact horses 7–21 days apart.  Virus isolation is considered the ‘gold standard’ test for a laboratory diagnosis of EHV-1 infection and should be attempted, especially during epidemics of EHM, using real-time PCR (RT-PCR).  Results of virus isolation may, however, be negative because the peak of virus shedding has usually passed by the time neurological signs appear.  Interpretation of serology is complicated by the fact that the SN, CF and ELISA tests in use at most diagnostic laboratories do not distinguish between antibodies to EHV-1 and -4. A specific ELISA based on the C-terminal portion of glycoprotein G of both viruses has been developed and should prove valuable in the investigation and management of disease outbreaks (Pusterla et al ’08).


Drugs Commonly Used in the Treatment of equine herpesvirus-1 myeloencephalopathy




Regiment, route and duration of treatment




Flunixin meglumine

1.1 mg/kg

Twice daily, PO, IM or IV for 3-5 days


0.05-0.25 mg/kg

Daily, IM or IV, for 3 days

Prednisolone acetate

1-2 mg/kg

Daily PO for 3 days

Free-radical scavenger



Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)

0.5-1 mg/kg

Daily, IV or PO for 3 days





30 mg/kg

Twice daily PO for 5-7 days


2.2 mg/kg

Once to twice daily, IM or IV for 5-7 days





10-20 mg/kg

Three to five times daily for 7 days


30-40 mg/kg

Twice to three times daily for 7 days

Source: Pusterla, N. et al., Equine herpesvirus-1 myeloencephalopathy: A review of recent developments, The Veterinary Journal. August 8, 2008


The treatment of EHM is challenging and the outcome is directly related to the severity of the neurological deficits in the affected horse.  Rest and relaxation in isolation are the basic treatment for EHM.  There are 17 vaccines containing an EHV-1 antigen marketed in North America or Europe however compelling evidence for their efficacy in preventing EHM is lacking and no vaccine is currently licensed to offers protection against the development of EHM. The Army 183 strain of EHV-1 has been shown to carry the D752 polymerase gene mutation associated with an increased risk of inducing neurological disease.  The EHV-1 vaccines currently marketed in North America include two single-component inactivated vaccines, namely Pneumabort K-1B (Fort Dodge) and Prodigy (Intervet), that are licensed for the prevention of abortion in pregnant mares, several multi-component inactivated vaccines (Prestige, Intervet; Calvenza, Boehringer Ingelheim; Innovator, Fort Dodge) and one MLV vaccine (Rhinomune, Pfizer) for the prevention of respiratory disease induced by EHV-1 and -4.  The significant reduction in viral shedding observed in vaccinated horses provides reasonable justification for booster vaccination of non-exposed horses at risk for infection in order to reduce viral shedding in the event of exposure to EHV-1.Acyclovir, a synthetic purine nucleoside analog with inhibitory activity against several human herpesviruses, has recently been used in the treatment and prevention of EHV-1 infection. The efficacy of acyclovir has been demonstrated in vitro with inhibitory concentrations of 0.3–7.0 lg/mL effective against neurotropic and non-neurotropic EHV-1 isolates.  Another nucleoside analog, valacyclovir, used to treat Herpes Simples I in humans, may be even more effective in both the treatment of EHV-1-affected horses and in the prophylaxis and containment of EHV-1 outbreaks.  Because of the high risk of developing cystitis and other secondary bacterial infections, it is advisable to administer broad-spectrum antimicrobials such as potentiated sulfonamides or ceftiofur, particularly when accompanying corticosteroid treatment.  Experimental studies are needed to define the appropriate doses of valacyclovir and acyclovir in horses and to document their efficacy in the treatment of EHM.  Valacyclovir (Valtrex) twice to three times daily is probably the most effective treatment for EHV-1(Pusterla et al ’08).


Conflict of Interest with the Deepwater Horizon Overpayment


                              Oiled gannet being cleaned with Dawn                             Hospitals & Asylums would like to declare only the federal half of a heartfelt conflict of interest with the Fish and Wildlife Service Description: Description: Description: photo(FWS) pre-dating the Deepwater Horizon Overpayment, that has been implicated by the Secretary of Interior as a possible human cause of the multi-vortex tornadoes that took at least 123 lives, sent 750 to the hospital and will cost insurers $1-3 billion, in Joplin, Missouri, on May 22, the deadliest tornado since 1925.  The April storms caused $3.7 billion to $5.5 billion in insurance industry losses.  Flooding is likely to cost insurance another $5 billion.  In national disasters such as these, federal disaster assistance is expected to match private insurance by paying all hospital bills of uninsured people, unemployment insurance and low interest reconstruction loans, as well as ensure there is an effectively public employment response to the national disaster. The federal government is however morally bankrupt.  In Flood and Tornado Insurance from the Deepwater Horizon Overpayment it was found that the FWS has declared Gulf seafood safe to eat and this means that the +/-$40 billion BP settlement, above the $20 billion requested by the author, who was wronfully evicted and robbed $300 rent the day the Response Solution was filed, is an overpayment, and should be diverted to disaster relief for flood and tornado victims under 33USC(40)§2718.  Funds allocated to Department of the Interior for Gulf cleanup, that are now unecessary, can be transferred to the adoption of an antifungal regime for the treatment of WNS hibernating bats and other worthy projects.  The Department of the Interior has bathed every waterfowl in the Gulf with Dawn, now it is time for the FWS to disinfect every bat cave with Lamisil AT.  In the future the Departrment of the Interior might be able to defray the federal costs of domestic natural disasters with fines of the liable industries, reasonable enough to not cause consumer prices to rise, yet industrially responsible, and repeal Bush’s armed hideout in the wilderness at 16USC(1)(I)§1a-7b after (a)(3).  The savings make one speculate that the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) might prefer to be overseen by the Department of Interior, leaving only an international office with U.S. Customs.  As a disclaimer to any political motive that might impinge upon the neutrality of medicine, this article has been written exclusively with the intention to expand access to unapproved therapies whereas the probable risk from the investigational drug is not greater than the probable risk from WNS and EHM under 21USC(9)(V)(E)§360bbb(b)(1). 




Antifungal Dog, Cat & Pet Health Products at Discount Prices. 2002-2011,


Birds and Fish Dying Around the World. EU Times. First posting January 6, 2011


Chaturvedi S. et al. Antifungal Testing and High-Throughput Screening of Compound Library against Geomyces destructans, the

Etiologic Agent of Geomycosis (WNS) in Bats. PLoS One. March 2, 2011; 6(3)


Pusterla, N. et al., Equine herpesvirus-1 myeloencephalopathy: A review of recent developments, The Veterinary Journal. August 8, 2008.


Sanders, Marcel DVM. Telephone onsultation regarding the use of antifungals and acyclovir. Hospitals & Asylums. May 25, 2011


                                           Credit: IBR Photo


Sanders, Tony J. Best Medicine Monographs. Hospitals & Asylums. HA-14-2-11


Sanders, Tony J. Flood and Tornado Insurance from the Deepwater Horizon Overpayment. Hospitals & Asylums HA-16-5-11


Sanders, Tony J. Ruling Regarding the Threatened Endangered Species Act. Hospitals & Asylums HA-8-10-05


United States Fish and Wildlife Service. A National Plan for Assisting States, Federal Agencies, and Tribes in Managing White-Nose Syndrome in Bats. May 2011,


Veterinarian Advice Encouraged in Wake of EHV-1 Outbreak. The Horse. Article # 18272. May 22, 2011


White-Nose Syndrome (WNS) Threatens the Survival of Hibernating Bats in North America. United States Geological Survey.,


Hibernating species

Long-distance Migrants/Non-hibernating species

1 Myotis auriculus Mexican long-eared bat

2 Myotis austroriparius Southeastern bat

3 Myotis californicus California bat

4 Myotis ciliolabrum Western small-footed myotis

5 Myotis evotis Western long-eared bat

6 Myotis grisescens Gray bat

7 Myotis keenii Keen's bat

8 Myotis leibii Eastern small-footed bat

9 Myotis lucifugus Little brown bat

10 Myotis occultus Occult bat

11 Myotis septentrionalis Northern long-eared bat

12 Myotis sodalis Indiana bat

13 Myotis thysanodes Fringed bat

14 Myotis velifer Cave bat

15 Myotis volans Long-legged bat

16 Myotis yumanensis Yuma bat

17 Nycticeius humeralis Evening bat

18 Parastrellus hesperus Canyon bat

19 Perimyotis subflavus Tricolored bat

20 Corynorhinus townsendii Townsend's big-eared bat

21 Corynorhinus rafinesquii Rafinesque's big-eared bat

22 Eptesicus fuscus Big brown bat

23 Antrozous pallidus Pallid bat

24 Euderma maculatum Spotted bat

25 Idionycteris phyllotis Allen's big-eared bat

1 Mormoops megalophylla Ghost-faced bat

2 Choeronycteris mexicana Mexican long-tongued bat

3 Leptonycteris nivalis Greater long-nosed bat

4 Leptonycteris yerbabuenae Lesser long-nosed bat

5 Macrotus californicus California leaf-nosed bat

6 Lasionycteris noctivagans Silver-haired bat

7 Lasiurus blossevillii Western red bat

8 Lasiurus borealis Eastern red bat

9 Lasiurus cinereus Hoary bat

10 Lasiurus ega Southern yellow bat

11 Lasiurus intermedius Northern yellow bat

12 Lasiurus seminolus Seminole bat

13 Lasiurus xanthinus Western yellow bat

14 Eumops floridanus Florida bonneted bat

15 Eumops perotis Greater mastiff bat

16 Eumops underwoodi Underwood's mastiff bat

17 Molossus molossus Pallas' mastiff bat

18 Nyctinomops femorosaccus Pocketed free-tailed bat

19 Nyctinomops macrotis Big free-tailed bat

20 Tadarida brasiliensis Brazilian free-tailed bat


Source: USGS