Hospitals & Asylums
1st Internet Governance Forum HA-1-11-06
Dear Internet Government:
The Internet Engineering Task Force wrote on 2 November to tell me to indicate reference to Liasion Statement [Inquiry #89845] in the subject line of all future correspondence about this issue so you may reply to this message. The primary issue introduced to the 1st Internet Governance Forum regarded the establishment of a UN Treaty Body to draft a treaty upholding the rights of Internet users and the standards of the world wide web. The Internet is a fairly new form of communication and an international treaty is clearly needed to give the International Government Forum a more permanent presence as the UN treaty body engaged by the Secretary General of the UN to draft a world wide web treaty to the satisfaction of the Member States and people using the Internet alike. This statement has been used by HA to claim intellectual credit for attendance of the Conference. It is dreamed that the Internet Government has already replaced the little known International Government and all people can now enjoy the service of human rights without any discrimination upon the basis of nationality, language, race, sex, disability or political opinion on the World Wide Web.
The purpose of this letter is to find an Internet Government able to compete the with Google Inc. search engine monopoly for the restoration of Hospitals & Asylums (HA) website (title24uscode.org) as the first response of search engines for those words. UN Enable is hosting an International Day for Disabled People on 3 December with the theme for this 2006 being E-accesibility. It is hope that the Internet Governance Forum in Athens, Greece will follow the example of the Draft Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities to establish a UN treaty body to represent the rights of Internet users and standards of the system. To remind you to slowly and methodically draft a treaty HA has included you in the quarterly email list. Is it too late to introduce the issue regarding the establishment of a UN Treaty Body to draft a treaty upholding the rights of Internet users and the standards of the world wide web to the Internet Governance Forum in Athens, Greece?
According to Internet Governance Forum in Athens Greece 30 October - 2 November 2006 the existing governmental structure is composed of the Internet Architecture Board (IAB) and Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) and the International Telecommunications Union (ITU). Other organizations are contributing towards deeper understanding of the cultural and practical implications of this global and growing network such as the Internet Society (ISOC), the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).
ICT, especially internet, is a two-way vehicle, optimally providing a platform for expression as well as access to information. And freedom of expression is essential if the internet is to serve individuals and communities. As people seek answers to their problems, they must be free to express their views and share their experiences without fearing reprisals for voicing opinions or making observations that are not in line with the official representation of facts concerning social, economic, political, sanitary or cultural issues.
The term "Internet". "Internet" refers to the global information system that -- (i) is logically linked together by a globally unique address space based on the Internet Protocol (IP) or its subsequent extensions/follow-ons; (ii) is able to support communications using the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) suite or its subsequent extensions/follow-ons, and/or other IP-compatible protocols; and (iii) provides, uses or makes accessible, either publicly or privately, high level services layered on the communications and related infrastructure described herein. The Internet has grown to over 50,000 networks on all seven continents and outer space, with approximately 29,000 networks in the United States.
On 24 May 1844, Samuel Morse sent his first public message over a telegraph line between Washington and Baltimore, and through that simple act, ushered in the telecommunication age. Barely ten years later, telegraphy was available as a service to the general public. To simplify matters, countries began to develop bilateral or regional agreements, so that by 1864 there were several regional conventions in place. On 17 May 1865, after two and a half months of arduous negotiation, the first International Telegraph Convention was signed in Paris by the 20 founding members, and the International Telegraph Union (ITU) was established to facilitate subsequent amendments to this initial agreement. Under an agreement with the newly created United Nations, it became a UN specialized agency on 15 October 1947, and the headquarters of the organization were transferred in 1948 from Bern to Geneva. Today, some 135 years later, the reasons which led to the establishment of ITU still apply, and the fundamental objectives of the organization remain basically unchanged.
The first recorded description of the social interactions that could be enabled through networking was a series of memos written by J.C.R. Licklider of MIT in August 1962 discussing his "Galactic Network" concept. He envisioned a globally interconnected set of computers through which everyone could quickly access data and programs from any site. In spirit, the concept was very much like the Internet of today. Licklider was the first head of the computer research program at DARPA, starting in October 1962. While at DARPA he convinced his successors at DARPA, Ivan Sutherland, Bob Taylor, and MIT researcher Lawrence G. Roberts, of the importance of this networking concept. After a series of networking conferences by 1985, Internet was already well established as a technology supporting a broad community of researchers and developers, and was beginning to be used by other communities for daily computer communications. Electronic mail was being used broadly across several communities, often with different systems, but interconnection between different mail systems was demonstrating the utility of broad based electronic communications between people. At first they were intended for, and largely restricted to, closed communities of scholars; there was hence little pressure for the individual networks to be compatible and, indeed, they largely were not.
In 1989, Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web. He coined the term "World Wide Web," wrote the first World Wide Web server, "httpd," and the first client program (a browser and editor), "WorldWideWeb," in October 1990. He wrote the first version of the "HyperText Markup Language" (HTML), the document formatting language with the capability for hypertext links that became the primary publishing format for the Web. His initial specifications for URIs, HTTP, and HTML were refined and discussed in larger circles as Web technology spread. In October 1994, Tim Berners-Lee founded the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Laboratory for Computer Science [MIT/LCS]
The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is an international consortium where Member organizations, a full-time staff, and the public work together to develop Web standards. W3C's mission is to lead the World Wide Web to its full potential by developing protocols and guidelines that ensure long-term growth for the Web. W3C primarily pursues its mission through the creation of Web standards and guidelines. Since 1994, W3C has published more than ninety such standards, called W3C Recommendations
The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) is an internationally organized, non-profit corporation that has responsibility for Internet Protocol (IP) address space allocation, protocol identifier assignment, generic (gTLD) and country code (ccTLD) Top-Level Domain name system management, and root server system management functions. These services were originally performed under U.S. Government contract by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) and other entities. ICANN now performs the IANA function. As a private-public partnership, ICANN is dedicated to preserving the operational stability of the Internet; to promoting competition; to achieving broad representation of global Internet communities; and to developing policy appropriate to its mission through bottom-up, consensus-based processes. The At-Large Committee listens to individual Internet users and the Government Advisory Committee organized nations to facilitate the development of a comprehensive international public-private partnership in this important area of management of the global Internet infrastructure.
The Internet SOCiety (ISOC) is a professional membership society with more than 100 organization and over 20,000 individual members in over 180 countries. It provides leadership in addressing issues that confront the future of the Internet, and is the organization home for the groups responsible for Internet infrastructure standards, including the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and the Internet Architecture Board (IAB). The Internet Architecture Board that is the Research Committee of the Internet Engineering Task Force that is a large open community of network designers, operators, vendors, and researchers concerned with the Internet and the Internet protocol suite. It is organized around a set of eight technical areas, each managed by a technical area director.
The ACLU's fight against Internet censorship stretches back a decade and continues as we return to court for the latest round. Congress first attempted to censor the Internet in 1996, when it passed the Communications Decency Act. The law criminalized "indecent" speech online. The ACLU sued, arguing that the law abridged the First Amendment. All nine Supreme Court justices agreed and struck down the law. The legal battle continues with the challenge to privacy evidenced in Gonzalez v. Google Inc. on 18 January 2006 where the Attorney General sought and court compeled the search engine company Google Inc. to turn over, “a multi-stage random sample of one million URL’s,” under the "Child Online Protection Act" (COPA) of 1998 which would impose draconian criminal sanctions, including five-figure penalties and months of imprisonment, for online material acknowledged as valuable for adults but judged "harmful to minors [kidnappers]".
"This case is about speech. It is not the role of the government to decide what people can see and use on the Internet," said lead counsel Chris Hansen, ACLU Senior Staff Attorney. "Those are personal decisions that should be made by individuals and their families. Congress does not have the right to censor information on the Internet. Americans have the right to participate in the global conversation that happens online every moment of every day." The online censorship law has already been held unconstitutional twice, and the Supreme Court upheld the ban on enforcement of the law in June 2004. Although there are bad bills floating around Congress the United States Senate is currently considering a bipartisan bill offered by Senators Olympia Snowe and Byron Dorgan, S. 2917, the Internet Freedom Preservation Act whereby Internet Servers shall not block, interfere with, discriminate against, impair, or degrade the ability of any person to use a broadband service to access, use, send, post, receive, or offer any lawful content, application, or service made available via the Internet and is reasonable and nondiscriminatory, including with respect to quality of service, access, speed, and bandwidth.
HA is entitled to promotion as the first Google response for the search string “Hospitals & Asylums”, with a caption as follows, “Hospitals & Asylums (HA) advocates for human rights, public health and economics in America and around the world title24uscode.org”.