Hospitals & Asylums
By Tony Sanders
1. The recent shooting rampage at Virginia Tech took the lives of 33 students and faculty, including the killer, and was the deadliest civilian shooting in recent US history. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported in 2002 that were 220 school-related shootings from 1994 to 1999, resulting in 253 deaths. Recent events indicate that this trend has not stopped. Heightened scrutiny of the three most recent public episodes of violence indicate that it erupts when education reforms are made public. Schools are obviously vulnerable to this sort of indiscriminate violence being benevolent concentration camps of unarmed students and teachers and the armed perpetrators know that shootings on campus will provoke emotions from the public making them forever infamous. Education certainly fosters cruel and degrading brainwashing that drives, or condemns, some people to mental illness and violence and forwards records of these allegations to the potentially arming authorities in the police and mental health system. We would be remiss not to pose the question if this school violence is not merely the result of copy cat killers and in fact a semi-organized form of terrorism like the suicide attackers in Palestine and Iraq and for the Taliban, a word that translates to students?
2. Today, Friday April 20, students at Virginia Tech, who have been given the week off, are ringing bells in a Governor sponsored commemoration of the dead. They survived the worst school shooting in US history that took the lives of an estimated 33 people including the gunman. The killings began on Monday April 16 at around 7:30am when two bodies were discovered in West Ambler Johnston Dorm that houses 895 students. Campus police thought it was an isolated incident and therefore did not shut down the campus. At 9:15a shootings at Norris Hall began that killed 30 people, including two professors and wounded 15. Police found the front doors of Norris Hall chained shut. By the time they got to the second floor, the gunfire stopped, because the killer had shot himself. Reports from survivors indicate that some people survived from their quick thinking barricading of the door, others jumped out of windows and others played dead.
3. The gunman was identified as 23-year-old resident alien from South Korea, senior English major, Seung-hui Cho. He was armed with a Walther .22-caliber semi-automatic, Glock 9 mm pistol, both with the serial numbers filed off and a black ammo vest. Roanoke Firearms owner John Markell said his shop sold the Glock and a box of practice ammo to Cho 36 days before for $571, the receipt for which was found in Cho’s backpack by a law enforcement officer. Cho held a green card, meaning he was a legal, permanent resident. That meant he was eligible to buy a handgun unless he had been convicted of a felony. His mental health record was not sufficient to prevent him from purchasing one of the two weapons used. Immigration records maintained by the Department of Homeland Security show that Cho was born in South Korea on Jan. 18, 1984, and entered the United States through Detroit on Sept. 2, 1992. He last renewed his green card on Oct. 27, 2003. Cho graduated from Westfield High School in Chantilly, Va., in 2003. His family lived in an off-white, two-story townhouse in Centreville, Va., and his parents work at a dry cleaners.
4. Cho was a loner. He had gotten into trouble in 2005 for stalking two women that led to him being held overnight in a mental health facility. Shortly before the shooting he was reported to have been prescribed anti-depressants and to have had conflicts involving mandatory counseling with his roomate. Cho had also been criticized for two plays that he wrote, 'Richard McBeef' about a fight between a stepson and his stepfather that involved accusations of pedophilia, murder of biological father and attacks with hammers and a chainsaw and 'Mr. Brownstone' about students in a casino talking about stalking and killing a teacher who had sexually molested them who catches them and has them thrown out when they win the jackpot. A former classmates said, “When we read Cho’s plays, it was like something out of a nightmare. The plays had really twisted, macabre violence that used weapons. Students were worried about whether he could be a school shooter.” Professor Carolyn Rude, chairwoman of the university’s English department said, “Cho’s writing was so disturbing that he had been referred to the university’s counseling service”. Authorities said Cho left an 8 page note in his dorm room that was found after the bloodbath described as “anti-woman, anti-rich kid”. In the time between the first and second shooting Cho mailed a multimedia message to NBC in New York.
5. The family of Virginia Tech gunman told
the Associated Press on Friday that they feel "hopeless, helpless and
lost," and "never could have envisioned that he was capable of so
much violence.He has made the world weep. We are living a nightmare. Our family
is so very sorry for my brother's unspeakable actions. It is a terrible tragedy
for all of us," said Sun-Kyung Cho, Cho’s sister, a 2004 Princeton
University graduate who works as a contractor for a State Department office
that oversees American aid for Iraq . "We pray for their families and loved ones who
are experiencing so much excruciating grief. And we pray for those who were
injured and for those whose lives are changed forever because of what they
witnessed and experienced," she said. "Each of these people had so
much love, talent and gifts to offer, and their lives were cut short by a
horrible and senseless act." Cho's
name was given as "Cho Seung-Hui " by police and school officials earlier this
week. But the the South Korean immigrant family said their preference was
"Seung-Hui Cho." Many Asian immigrant families Americanize their
names by reversing them and putting their surnames last.
6. President Charles Steger said, “Classes have been canceled for the rest of the week, and Norris Hall will be closed for the remainder of the semester”. There had been two bomb threats at the university this April, the latest of which came Friday. Last August, the first day of class was cut short at Virginia Tech by a manhunt for an escaped prisoner accused of killing a Blacksburg hospital security guard and a sheriff's deputy. Before Monday, the deadliest mass shooting in the United States occurred in 1991, when George Hennard drove a pickup truck into a Killeen, Texas, cafeteria and fatally shot 23 people, before shooting and killing himself. Tuesday Steger defended the university response to the dorm shooting, saying police believed it to be "a domestic fight, perhaps a murder-suicide" that was contained to one dorm room. "I don't think anyone could have predicted that another event was going to take place two hours later." Erin Sheehan gave the eyewitness account that, "He just stepped within five feet of the door and just started firing. He seemed very thorough about it, getting almost everyone down, I pretended to be dead." The shooter, who remained quiet throughout the rampage, came back 30 seconds after the first round of gunfire and Sheehan and her classmates tried to barricade the door with their bodies. After the shooter couldn't get in, he began firing through the door. Of the 25 students in her German class, Sheehan was one of four able to walk out on her own when police arrived. Courtney Dalton, an 18-year-old student who worked at West End Dining Hall, said a friend named Ryan Clark was one of the two dormitory victims. Clark, a resident assistant at West Ambler Johnston Hall, had once worked at the cafeteria serving pizza. Sobbing, she described Clark "a happy person." The complete list of casualties follows,
7. The university scheduled a convocation for 2 p.m. ET Tuesday that President Bush attended. “Schools should be places of safety, sanctuary and learning,” Bush said in reaction to the deaths of more than 30 people on the campus. “When that sanctuary is violated, the impact is felt in every American classroom in every American community.” Bush spoke with Gov. Timothy M. Kaine and Virginia Tech President Charles Steger. "I told them that Laura and I and many across our nation are praying for the victims and all the members of university community that have been devastated by this terrible tragedy," Bush said in the Diplomatic Room of the White House. "Today our nation grieves with those who have lost loved ones at Virginia Tech," he said. "We hold the victims in our hearts. We lift them up in our prayers and we ask a loving God to comfort those who are suffering today."' Attorney General Alberto Gonzales said agents from the FBI and the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives were already on the campus, aiding local authorities in the investigation. "We are committed to providing support and assistance to those authorities as well as to the victims of this crime for as long as necessary," Gonzales said in a statement issued by the Justice Department. "I am deeply saddened and angered by these senseless acts of violence," Gonzales said. "My deepest condolences and prayers go out to those affected by this horrific crime, especially those who lost loved ones”. Gonzales had been scheduled to testify before the Senate Judiciary Committee Tuesday regarding the firing of eight U.S. attorneys, but that testimony was postponed because of the Virginia shootings, until Thursday. In the House, which returned Monday from a two-week recess, Speaker Nancy Pelosi, D-CA, interrupted the proceedings to lead a moment of silence in remembrance. "As the Virginia Tech community struggles with the mourning and questioning that is certain to follow, the continued prayers from this Congress are with the students, their families, the faculty and the staff at Virginia Tech".
8. The trigger for this most recent school shooting was clearly the $25 billion buyout of Sallie Mae, the largest U.S. student loan company, that closed the deal on the same day, Monday, as the shooting. Sallie Mae, whose formal name is SLM Corp., said two funds, J.C. Flowers and Friedman Fleischer & Lowe, will invest $4.4 billion and own 50.2 percent. Bank of America and JPMorgan will each invest $2.2 billion and own 24.9 percent. The deal follows a settlement between Sallie Mae and New York Attorney General Andrew Cuomo for $2 million in which Sallie Mae promised to change lending practices such as paying university financial aid officers for appearing on advisory boards. Attorneys general from over 40 states are looking into the extent to which student loan companies offer kickbacks to universities and their financial aid employees for steering business to the lenders. Sallie Mae was created in 1972 as a quasi-governmental company known as a "government sponsored entity." It began cutting its direct government ties in 1997, a process completed in 2004. After the takeover, Sallie Mae's current management will continue to lead the company, and the company will continue to originate student loans under its internal brands. It will remain headquartered in Reston, Virginia. Bank of America and Chase will continue to operate their independent student lending businesses. The transaction will require the approval of Sallie Mae's stockholders, is subject to regulatory approval, and is expected to close in late 2007. Sallie Mae will not pay further dividends prior to closing of the deal.
9. The trigger for last year’s three school shootings was obviously the release of Secretary Spelling’s Plan for More Affordable, Accessible, Accountable and Consumer-Friendly U.S. Higher Education System on 26 September 2006 in response to the final report of the Commission on the Future of Higher Education. The report said that, where once the United States led the world in educational attainment, recent data from OECD indicate that our nation is now ranked 12th among major industrialized countries in higher education attainment. The percentage of college graduates deemed proficient in prose literacy and the production of documents has actually declined from 40 to 31 percent in the past decade. Close to 25 percent of all students in public high schools do not graduate. The proportion of high school graduates who immediately enter college has risen in recent decades but has largely stalled at around 60 percent since the late 1990s. Of the nation’s nearly 14 million undergraduates it takes longer than 6 years to complete 66% of all bachelors’ degrees. While about one-third of whites have obtained bachelor’s degrees by age 25–29, for example, just 18 percent of blacks and 10 percent of Latinos in the same age cohort have earned degrees by that time. From 1995 to 2005, average tuition and fees at private four-year colleges and universities rose 36 percent after adjusting for inflation. Over the same period, average tuition and fees rose 51 percent at public four-year institutions and 30 percent at community colleges twice as much as health insurance. The benefits of higher education are significant both for individuals and for the nation as a whole. In 2003, for example, the median annual salary of an American worker with only a high school diploma was $30,800, compared with the $37,600 median for those with an associate’s degree and the $49,900 median for those with a bachelor’s degree (and the enforced $10,000 ceiling for scholars). Over a lifetime, an individual with a bachelor’s degree will earn an average of $2.1 million—nearly twice as much as a worker with only a high school diploma. Higher education in the United States is limited by the complex interplay of inadequate preparation, lack of information about college opportunities, and persistent financial barriers. The present student financial aid system should be replaced with a strategically oriented, results-driven system built on the principles of (i) increased access, or enrollment in college by those students who would not otherwise be likely to attend, including nontraditional students; (ii) increased retention, or graduation by students who might not have been able to complete college due to the cost, (iii) decreased debt burden, and (iv) eliminating structural incentives for tuition inflation.
10. The first of the Higher Education Plan shooting occurred on Friday when a school principal was shot to death in Cazenovia, Wisconsin. Eric Hainstock, 15, was charged as an adult with murder for allegedly walking into Weston Schools and killing principal John Klang. Wounded, Klang, confronted Hainstock and wrestled his gun away. Klang died later of injuries to the head, chest and leg. Officials said the shooting came a day after the principal gave the teen a disciplinary warning for having tobacco on school grounds. Children from pre-kindergarten to 12th grade attend the small school, in a community of about 300 people about 60 miles northwest of Madison. The second shooting occurred on Monday. The gunman was identified as Duane Morrison who killed one student and then himself at Platte Canyon High School in Bailey, Colo. Authorities said the man in Colorado sexually molested the girls. Emily Keyes, 16, was fatally wounded as a police SWAT team entered the classroom where Morrison held her. He had taken several female students hostage. The school is in a narrow, winding canyon carved by the South Platte River about 35 miles southwest of Denver. The third shooting occurred a day or two later when a gunman, Charles Carl Roberts IV, a 31-year-old truck driver from the nearby town of Bart, dropped his children off at the school bus stop, then pulled up at the Amish school in his truck and walked in around 10 a.m. with a shotgun, an automatic handgun and several pieces of lumber. He released about 15 boys, a pregnant woman and three women with babies. He barred the doors with two-by-fours and two-by-sixes, made the remaining girls line up along a blackboard, and tied their feet together with wire ties and flexible plastic ties. A teacher called police around 10:30 a.m. and reported that a gunman was holding students hostage. Roberts called his wife around 11 a.m., saying he was taking revenge for an old grudge. Moments later, Roberts told a dispatcher he would open fire on the children if police didn't back away from the building. Within seconds, troopers heard gunfire. When they got inside, they found his body. The Pennsylvania attack was the deadliest school shooting since a teenager went on a rampage last year on an Indian reservation in Red Lake, Minn., killing 10 people in all, including five students, a teacher, a security guard and himself.
11. Nationwide, until the Virginia Tech shooting, the 1999 Columbine High School massacre in Littleton, Colo., was the deadliest school shooting, with 15 dead, including the two teenage gunmen. Columbine High School was closed Friday, as it has been every April 20 since the 1999 attack in which two students, Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold, killed 12 classmates and a teacher before killing themselves. Cho Seung-Hui, who killed at least 30 people on the Virginia Tech campus on Monday before taking his own life, called Harris and Klebold "martyrs" in a videotape he mailed to NBC that was broadcast Wednesday. Federal Judge Lewis Babcock's decision this month to seal for 20 years the testimony of Harris' and Klebold's parents about the boys' home lives has infuriated some survivors and victims' relatives, who feel the information could help prevent future school rampages. In his ruling, Babcock cited a need for confidentiality and concerns that releasing the testimony from the Columbine killers' parents could encourage copycat crimes. Researchers into school-related violence support the Columbine families' position on releasing the tapes, noting the relative frequency of violent campus incidents.
12. There is clearly a problem with mental health on college campuses and schools, however not much different than the 20% rate of society in general. The youth of the patients however makes suicide a frequent concern. In 2006, the American College Health Association’s National College Health Assessment, covering nearly 95,000 students at 117 campuses, found that 9 percent of students had seriously considered suicide in the previous year, and 1 in 100 had attempted it. The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) passed in 1974, makes it illegal to disclose a student’s records to family members without the student’s authorization. Universities cannot tell parents about their children’s problems without the student’s consent. They cannot release any information in a student’s medical record without consent. And they cannot put students on involuntary medical leave, just because they develop a serious mental illness. They can’t really kick someone out because they’re writing papers about weird topics, even if they seem withdrawn and hostile,” said Dr. Richard Kadison, chief of mental health services at Harvard University. “Most state laws are pretty clear: you can only bring students to hospitals if there is imminent risk to themselves or someone else, so universities are in a bit of a bind that way.” The question for Congress is should FERPA be amended to permit the family of students to be contacted to assist in the treatment and normalization of students diagnosed with mental illness? This would protect the students from being isolated in potentially corrupt mental health and police systems that might seek to brainwash them for use in spying, bio-terrorism and suicide attacks if the secrecy works and when a political objective manifests.
13. The potential terrorist conspiracy that we are investigating, without inventing a problem, involves over-investigating student loan corporations, attorney generals not independent of debt collection, finance or the local police or the mental health system and education institution employees taking degrading treatment to the level of persecution. This Virginia Tech case involves a debt collection corporation named NCO Financial who was hired by a Psychiatric Professional Service to fraudulently bill me for kidnapping, torture and a terrorist conspiracy causing deaths on an airline in the state that anonymously forgave a large portion of my student loans, that cost their hospital network a +/- $7 million loss on the county ballot in 2006 and when their burgling misbehavior did not stop, two of their seven hospitals, one of which was given in appreciation for the tardy freedom. At the time of the Virginia Tech shooting the hospital network had followed me to the county court when I was applying for the sealing of records whereas several were fraudulent authorizations for the bio-terrorist conspiracy the psychiatrists and college professors were involved in. They were trying to prevent the two hospitals from seceding. In the weekend before the Virginia Tech shootings I receive a harassing call from the NCO financial. On the day of the shooting I received another call and another more recently. The relationship of debt collectors to terrorist network is made clear in the International Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Finance of December 9, 1999 that prohibits any person(s) from directly or indirectly, unlawfully, and willfully providing or collecting funds with the intention that they should be used, or in the knowledge that they are to be used, to carry out an act that constitutes an offense under one of the nine treaties listed in the annex. It shall not be necessary that the funds were actually used to carry out an offense. It also prohibits any act intended to cause death or serious bodily injury to a civilian, or to any other person not actively involved in a situation of armed conflict (that debt collectors should not be involved in) when the purpose of such act is to intimidate a population, or to compel a government or an international organization to either do, or to abstain from doing a specific act.
14. It is important to prohibit the infringement of the Attorney General in student loan and debt collection matters whereas the hostage taking that occurs in the judiciary is in contravention to several of the aforementioned treaties. Problems regarding terrorism seems to manifest in that debt collection agencies are investigating bad people known as delinquent debtors. Detention for debt has been prohibited since the middle of 19th century and it has become common knowledge that debt collectors are quite vicious and the judiciary must defend the people against them through bankruptcy proceedings, that debtors are not encouraged to use except in cases of chronic harassment. A more telling case from 2006 titled, the Ohio State Debt, Student Loan and Detention Case HA-14-3-06 clearly demonstrates that the infringement of the Attorney General leads student loan debt collectors to call to claim responsibility for terrorist attacks, in a timely fashion. Since their second Congressionally induced fraud this 2007 that seems to prelude judicial seizure I have renounced all responsibility for my debt that I consider repaid in full by the counsel in their brief that holds true and is upheld by the State of Ohio as well as the product liability issue regarding nonsupport, fraud, discrimination, persecution, terrorism, illiteracy in judicial matters and degrading treatment by my alma mater that forced me to censure them to eliminate casualties from leaks of information to the same mysterious international terrorist organization for whom President Bush is often spokesperson. The complicity of educational institutions, student loan and debt collection corporations and attorneys general with terrorism is in question. There is no doubt that it is wrong to involve the Attorney General in debt collection or education matters as a jurisdiction. It is possible that the investigation into student loan malfeasance led by New York Attorney General Andrew Cuomo will not be a chronic problem because they are not colluding with the debt collectors. The intrusion is however not desirable and the integrity of the confidential databases must remain with the Secretary of Education for the cross examination of the income records of the Treasury. It is hoped that the Attorney Generals will be swift and give responsibility for the resolution of their investigations to the Secretary of Education to uphold the principles of separation of powers and the independence of the judiciary to prevent treason from generating violence under Art. 3(3) of the US Constitution.
15. To give the Secretary of Education more authority it is recommended that the Secretary usurp the role of the Attorney General in civil rights statute 42USC§ 2000c–6 Civil actions by the Attorney General. It would help a lot if the Secretary would defend the students in their pursuit of equal protection of the law and admittance to institutions of higher education. The impersonal discrimination and degradation of institutions in these regards give rise to anger that sometimes boils over into violence and revolution that should not be directed to the General who might make it real, but the Secretary of Education, who needs to take a more active role in upholding and arbitrating disputes regarding civil and human rights in the education system. This section sets up a rational regime involving the certification of complaints, notice to school board or college authority, institution of civil action, relief requested, jurisdiction, transportation of pupils to achieve racial balance to insure compliance with constitutional standards and impleading of additional parties. In Bakke v. Regents of California the US Supreme Court found that there is a “compelling need for diversity in higher education”. Justice Powell made the point that "the nation's future depends upon leaders trained through wide exposure to the ideas and mores of students as diverse as this Nation of many peoples." This doctrine came under fire in the 1996 case Hopwood v. State of Texas where the 5th Circuit Court of Appeals defied the Supreme Court stating that there was no compelling interest to enrolling a racially diverse student body. In 1997 the state of Michigan passed two rulings in Gratz & Grutter, et al. v. Bollinger, et al.No. 97-75928 & No. 97-75231 (E.D. Mich) reinforcing the compelling need doctrine. It is hoped that the Secretary of Education will relieve the burden of litigating civil rights from the Courts and Attorney General whereas greater diversity and professionalism is needed in the enforcement of civil rights whereas in the years prophesied for freedom in the codification of civil rights resulted in a quadrupling of the prison population and the presence of the General, in civil rights statute, is conspicuous. When presented with cases regarding, education in this case, Attorneys General should forward them, with counsel in writing, to the responsible party, ie. the Secretary of Education.
16. The issue of gun control has arisen after the Virginia Tech massacre. People were disturbed that Cho could purchase a gun although he had recently been diagnosed with mental problems and had even more recently been prescribed anti-depressant medication and these records could have been used to prevent him from purchasing the murder weapon(s). The debate over gun ownership is centered on the Second Amendment to the Constitution, which protects "the right of the people to keep and bear arms." Gun control advocates believe that right does not extend to ownership of military-style firearms that are otherwise known as assault weapons. They point to incidents such as the Columbine high school massacre in April 1999, which resulted in the deaths of 14 students (including the two gunmen) and a teacher, in support of banning assault weapons. They also support measures intended to curb gun-related violence, such as mandatory child safety locks, background checks on those wishing to purchase a gun, limits on the number of guns a person can buy and raising the age limit for gun ownership. Gun rights groups, led by the National Rifle Association, argue that these and other proposals infringe on the constitutional rights of law-abiding citizens. They maintain that bans on the sale of certain types of weapons have not proved effective in reducing violent crime, and that proposals for stricter background checks at gun shows are designed to eliminate gun shows themselves. Some gun manufacturers have volunteered support for safety locks, but the NRA has criticized safety locks for placing an undue burden on gun manufacturers without a proven benefit to the public. The issue in this case of precluding people who were at some time diagnosed with mental illness from purchasing weapons is complicated because it does not prevent people from joining the military if they have recovered and if frequently nothing but discrimination that should not haunt an individual unless involving violence or chronic mental illness. However it seems wise to prohibit people with violent delusions from purchasing guns through limited information sharing that is complicated by the problem of soliciting to the armed forces for suicide attackers and the persecution they are probably trying to defend themselves from with the purchase of a weapon but would be better off researching the law for a competent unarmed authority.
17. In conclusion it is hoped to make some recommendations to improve school security against future massacres. First, a local Sheriff came up with the original idea to have an armed person on every school campus that seems like a good idea for small schools however there is much more to school security than arming. Second, student loans present a clear and present danger of terrorism that debt collection corporations must defend against by keeping their records confidential with the former student in the security of the Secretary of Education, prohibiting the exchange of information with other debt collectors and investigators other than the Secretary of Treasury. Third, it is important to educate students in the prevalence of mental illness, 20% of the population per year, the connection between withdrawal from addictive drugs including tobacco and other experimental drugs that can be administered without your knowledge and mental illness, the importance of not believing the deluded thoughts and hallucinations that occur when suffering from mental illness, the importance of pure thoughts in written and artistic works, the utility of counseling and medication in the treatment of mental illness and the importance of carrying on with your career when under mental strain, however FERPA should be amended to inform the family of mental health treatment decisions. Fourth, the issue of banning gun sales to people with mental health backgrounds seems like a good idea but is very likely to turn into a clearinghouse for suicide attackers however it is true that the mentally ill 20% of the population should be removed from access to weapons swiftly and until they are sane so it is recommended to pursue the background check but careful to inform the individual. Fifth, the Secretary of Education should usurp the role of the Attorney General as the arbitrator of civil and civil rights disputes on campus and in education financing to preclude the infringement of outside armed force and acclimatize the education institutions to reform. For better security the Secretary should interpret the Constitution to indicate a parliamentary democracy form of government that fosters lively debate regarding the law without infringing upon the confidentiality of student records.
1. Associated Press. Gunman raged against women, rich kids, report says. April 17, 2007
2. Associated Press. Shooting at Amish School. Nickel Mines, Pa. October 2, 2006
3. Bakke v. Regents of California
4. Breed, Allen G.; Beard, Aaron. Killer's Family Feels 'Helpless and Lost: Virginia Tech Holds Day of Mourning for Victims. AP. Blacksburg, Va. April 20, 2007
6. Civil actions by the Attorney General 42USC§ 2000c–6
7. CNN. Families Relive Columbine on 8 Year Anniversary. Littleton, Colorado. April 20, 2007
8. CNN. Police: Virginia Tech shooter an English Major, 23. April 17, 2007
9. CNN. Shootings impacts felt in every American classroom. April 16, 2007
10. Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA). 1974
11. Hopwood v. State of Texas (1996)
12. International Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Finance. December 9, 1999.
13. Lewin, Tamar. Law Limits Options When a Student is Menally Ill. New York Times. April 19, 2007
14. Mindfreedom International. Investigation into the mental health of Cho Sueng-hiu. April 18, 2007
15. NCO Financial Systems, Inc. Bill for $95.70 of March 14, 2007 and Bill for $30.91 of March 10, 2007
16. Reuters. Sallie Mae Agrees to $25 Billion Buyout. Philadelphia. April 16, 2007
17. Sanders, Tony J. Ohio State Debt, Student Loan and Detention Case HA-14-3-06
18. Secretary Spelling. Plans for More Affordable, Accessible, Accountable and Consumer-Friendly U.S. Higher Education System. 26 September 2006
19. US Constitution. Art 3 Section 3 Judicial Treason & 2nd Amendment Right to Bear Arms
20. US Labor Secretary Chow in Augusta for Women’s Construction Event. “Card Check Bill Restricts Workers’ Rights”. April 12, 2007