Hospitals & Asylums
Prospectus for Peace in the 110th Congress HA-15-5-07
By Tony Sanders
1. The United States has the best-trained, most effective military in the world. The military is an all-volunteer force of dedicated, patriotic men and women who reflect the best values and spirit of our Nation. Since 2001, approximately 1,500,000 members of the Armed Forces have been deployed in support of the conflicts in Iraq (Public Law 107-243) and Afghanistan (Public Law 107-40), of whom approximately one-third have served at least two tours of duty, 70,000 have served three tours of duty, and 20,000 have served at least five tours of duty. At this time more than 137,000 United States military personnel are bravely and honorably serving in Iraq. Over 3,100 members of the Armed Forces have died, and over 22,500 members of the Armed Forces have been wounded. Congress has a responsibility to ensure that the members of the Armed Forces are provided for to the fullest extent possible and to make certain that the lives of the members of the Armed Forces are never put at risk without careful consideration. The Congressional Research Service estimates that $379 billion have already been appropriated by Congress to finance ongoing combat operations in Iraq. This Memorial Day the collective judgment of both Congress and the President regarding the use of military force by the United States in Iraq is urged to bring the people of both nations peace.
2. Article I, Section 8 of the United States Constitution grants Congress the power `to declare war,' to lay and collect taxes, to `provide for the common defense' and general welfare of the United States, to `raise and support armies,' to `provide and maintain a navy,' to `make rules for the regulation for the land and naval forces,' to `provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the Union, suppress insurrections and repel invasions,' to `provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the militia,' and to `make all laws necessary and proper for carrying into execution all powers vested by the Constitution in the Government of the United States'. The Constitution also grants Congress exclusive power over the purse, `No money shall be drawn from the Treasury but in consequence of appropriations made by law'. The sole war power granted to the executive branch through the President can be found in Article II, Section 2, which states, `the President shall be the Commander-in-Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several States, when called into actual Service of the United State’. The Constitution of the United States provides that the President, in an emergency, may act to defend the country, but reserved the matter of offensive war to Congress as the representatives of the people.
3. In Federalist Paper Number 69, while comparing the lesser war-making power of the United States President versus King George III of Great Britain, Alexander Hamilton wrote, `the President is to be commander-in-chief of the Army and Navy of the United States. In this respect his authority would be nominally the same with that of the King of Great Britain, but in substance much inferior to it. It would amount to nothing more than the supreme command and direction of the military and naval forces, as first General and admiral; while that of the British king extends to the declaring of war and to raising and regulating of fleets and armies, all which, by the Constitution under consideration, would appertain to the legislature.' James Madison declared that it is necessary to adhere to the `fundamental doctrine of the Constitution that the power to declare war is fully and exclusively vested in the legislature'. In 1793, President George Washington, when considering how to protect inhabitants of the American frontier, instructed his Administration that `no offensive expedition of importance can be undertaken until after Congress has deliberated upon the subject, and authorized such a measure'. In 1801, Thomas Jefferson sent a small squadron of frigates to the Mediterranean to protect against possible attacks by the Barbary powers; he told Congress that he was `unauthorized by the Constitution, without the sanction of Congress, to go beyond the line of defense' and that it was up to Congress to authorize `measures of offense also’. Although the Commander in Chief might do it, it is also the responsibility of Congress to redeploy the troops.
4. During the summer of 2006, General George Casey, the top United States military commander in Iraq, proposed a plan for the deployment from Iraq of a substantial portion of United States Armed Forces and briefed the President accordingly. U.S. Central Command Commander General John Abizaid testified to Congress on November 15, 2006, `I met with every divisional commander, General Casey, the Corps Commander, and General Dempsey. We all talked together. And I said, in your professional opinion, if we were to bring in more American troops now, does it add considerably to our ability to achieve success in Iraq? And they all said no. And the reason is, because we want the Iraqis to do more. It's easy for the Iraqis to rely upon us to do this work. I believe that more American forces prevent the Iraqis from doing more, from taking more responsibility for their own future.' Iraq Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki stated on November 27, 2006, that `the crisis is political, and the ones who can stop the cycle of aggravation and bloodletting of innocents are the politicians.
Whereas more than $277 billion has been appropriated by the United States Congress to prosecute US military action in Afghanistan and Iraq.
Whereas as of the drafting of this resolution, 2,079 US troops have been killed in Operation Iraq Freedom and over 300 in Operation Enduring Freedom.
Whereas US forces have become the target of insurgency.
Whereas according to the polls, over 80% of the Iraq people want the US out of Iraq.
Whereas polls also indicate that 45% of the Iraqi people feel that attacks on the US are justified.
Whereas due to foregoing Congress finds it evident that continuing US military action in Iraq or Afghanistan is not in the best interest of the United States of America, the people of Iraq, or the Persian Gulf region which was cited in Public Law 107-243 as justification for taking such action.
Therefore be it resolved that the deployment of US troops in Iraq and Afghanistan, by direction of Congress, is hereby terminated.
Expressing the sense of the House of Representatives that the deployment of United States forces in Iraq be terminated immediately.
Resolved that it is the sense of the House of Representatives that the deployment of United States forces in Iraq be terminated immediately.
Declares that it is the policy of the United States not to enter into any base agreement with the Government of Iraq that would lead to a permanent United States military presence in Iraq.
5. The United Nations shall;
a. Develop and implement a plan to begin the immediate withdrawal of U.S. armed forces from Iraq;
b. Develop and implement a plan for reconstructing Iraq's civil and economic infrastructure;
c. Convene an emergency meeting of Iraq's leadership, Iraq's neighbors, the United Nations, and the Arab League to create an international peacekeeping force in Iraq and to replace U.S. armed forces, and
d. Provide the Iraqi people the opportunity to completely control their internal affairs.
a. United States Armed Forces initiated combat operations against the military of the Saddam Hussein regime on March 19, 2003, and concluded those operations in April 2004 with the defeat of the Iraqi military and the collapse of the Hussein regime.
b. United States Armed Forces personnel have remained in Iraq since the beginning of combat operations, and now number approximately 148,000 (and as of November 8, 2005 2,054 casualties).
c. United States Armed Forces personnel have served with great distinction and valor in Iraq, and have earned the commendation and thanks of the United States Congress and the American people.
d. An interim government of Iraq assumed sovereignty at the end of June 2004, and conducted an election on January 30, 2005, for a transitional National Assembly to draft a permanent constitution for Iraq.
e. The Iraqi people ratified the permanent constitution by a referendum conducted on October 15, 2005, and parliamentary elections under that constitution are now scheduled for December 15, 2005.
f. We must therefore begin withdrawing United States Armed Forces from Iraq;
g. We must recognize the elected Governments of Iraq and Afghanistan as the legitimate government of a fully sovereign country with control over its natural resources, security, and public safety within its borders.
7. Requiring the development and implementation of a plan for the withdrawal of United States Armed Forces from Afghanistan and Iraq, to:
a. Announce, a plan for the withdrawal of all U.S. Armed Forces from Iraq and Afghanistan;
b. Turn over, at the earliest possible date, all military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan to the elected government(s) and provide for the prompt and orderly withdrawal of all U.S. Armed Forces from Iraq and Afghanistan; and
c. Initiate such a withdrawal as soon as possible but not later than October 1, 2006.
d. Establish a plan for the withdrawal of all U.S. Armed Forces from Iraq and Afghanistan in consultation with the national parliaments and Defense Secretary;
e. Establish a plan for a transition of responsibility to the military forces of the Iraqi and Afghan governments and a transition of U.S. military personnel to an advisory and support role;
f. Accelerate the training and equipping of the military and security forces of the Iraqi government; and
g. Account for the civilian casualties and any missing members of the U.S. Armed Forces or U.S. citizens in Iraq, prior to completion of the withdrawal.
8. The debate currently raging in Washington DC that this essay seeks to resolve centers upon the unauthorized decision of the President to send a 21,500 troop surge to Iraq although the Iraq Study Group had just released a plan to have all the troops withdrawn by the end of first quarter 2008. The Iraq Study Group was formed at the urging of Congress, and the Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act for Defense, the Global War On Terror, and Hurricane Recovery, 2006 (Public Law 109-234) that provided $1,000,000 for Iraq Study Group operations. Members of the Iraq Study Group were appointed in March 2006 and were responsible for providing a forward-looking, independent assessment of the strategic environment in and around Iraq, the security of Iraq and key challenges to enhancing security within the country, political developments within Iraq following the elections and formation of the new government, the economy and reconstruction, and how the situation in Iraq affects the surrounding region as well as United States interests. On December 6, 2006, the bipartisan Iraq Study Group released its report title, ‘The Iraq Study Group Report'.
9. The bipartisan Iraq Study Group headed by former Secretary of State James Baker and former Representative Lee Hamilton reached a bipartisan consensus on 79 separate recommendations for a new approach in Iraq. The report advised, `Sustained increases in U.S. troop levels would not solve the fundamental cause of violence in Iraq, which is the absence of national reconciliation . . . Past experience indicates that the violence would simply rekindle as soon as U.S. forces are moved.'. Among those recommendations were calling for a new diplomatic offensive in the region and conditioning American economic assistance to Iraq on specific benchmarks, with the expectation that `by the first quarter of 2008, subject to unexpected developments in the security situation on the ground, all combat brigades not necessary for force protection could be out of Iraq'. In accordance with Recommendation 21, if the Iraqi Government does not make substantial progress toward the achievement of milestones on national reconciliation, security, and governance, the United States should reduce its political, military, or economic support for the Iraqi Government. There must be consequences if Iraq does not perform.
10. The Iraq Study Group estimated the United States has appropriated $34 billion to support the reconstruction of Iraq, of which $21 billion has been appropriated for the Iraq Relief and Reconstruction Fund. The report sets forth a comprehensive strategy of new and enhanced diplomatic and political efforts in Iraq and the region. The change in the primary mission of U.S. forces in Iraq is to begin to move its combat forces out of Iraq responsibly. Congress supports the recommendations of the Iraq Study Group, most importantly the repositioning of United States troops to meet the objective of training and equipping the Iraqi military, the establishment a framework for cooperation and coordination with Iraqi leaders that includes the achievement of specific milestones and objectives within a reasonable time frame, the launching of a new diplomatic initiative to unite the region and build international consensus for stability and reconstruction in Iraq; and that any policies enacted by the Administration with regard to Iraq are implemented in direct and continued consultation with Congress and relevant House and Senate committees.
11. The report was not received well by the President or his corrupt Iraqi officials whom he mobilizes in acts of violence in reaction to every reasonable overture for peace. On December 30, 2006, Saddam Hussein was executed by the Government of Iraq. On January 10, 2007, the President addressed the American people and provided a plan entitled `The New Way Forward in Iraq consisting of the additional deployment of 21,500 US troops to Iraq'. In his speech to the Nation the President said, `I've made it clear America's commitment is not open-ended. If the Iraqi government does not follow through on its promises, it will lose the support of the American people. America would hold the Government of Iraq to the benchmarks it has announced--the Iraqi Government plans to take responsibility for security in all of Iraq's provinces by November 2007, Iraq will pass legislation to share oil revenues among all Iraqis, the Iraqi Government will spend $10 billion of its own money on reconstruction and infrastructure projects that will create new jobs, Iraqis plan to hold provincial elections later in 2007, and the Iraqi Government will reform de-Baathification laws and establish a fair process for considering amendments to the Iraq Constitution. The goal of United States policy in Iraq, is an Iraq that can `govern itself, sustain itself, and defend itself'.
12. In reaction to the speech of President George W. Bush of January 10, 2007, former Secretary of State Baker and former Representative Hamilton wrote that `the President did not suggest the possibility of a transition that could enable U.S. combat forces to begin to leave Iraq. The President did not state that political, military, or economic support for Iraq would be conditional on the Iraq government's ability to meet benchmarks. Within the region, the President did not announce an international support group for Iraq including all of Iraq's neighbors. In testimony before the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate on January 11, 2007, Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice stated that unless the Government of Iraq has met certain benchmarks and reestablishes the confidence of the Iraqi people over the next several months, `this plan is not going to work'. In a statement on January 11, 2007, Secretary of Defense Robert Gates stated `and we will probably have a better view a couple of months from now in terms of whether we are making headway in terms of getting better control of Baghdad, with the Iraqis in the lead and with the Iraqis beginning to make better progress on the reconciliation process'.
13. In the State of the Union Address on January 23, 2007, President Bush stated `Iraq's leaders know that our commitment is not open-ended. They have promised to deploy more of their own troops to secure Baghdad, and they must do so. They have pledged that they will confront violent radicals of any faction or political party. And they need to follow through and lift needless restrictions on Iraqi and coalition forces, so these troops can achieve their mission of bringing security to all of the people of Baghdad. Iraq's leaders have committed themselves to a series of benchmarks to achieve reconciliation--to share oil revenues among all of Iraq's citizens, to put the wealth of Iraq into the rebuilding of Iraq, to allow more Iraqis to re-enter their nation's civic life, to hold local elections, and to take responsibility for security in every Iraqi province.' The President needed a new Corp Commander and on January 26, 2007, the United States Senate unanimously confirmed General David H. Petraeus as the new commander of United States and allied forces in Iraq. General Petraeus, as principal author of Army Field Manual 3-24 (MCWP 3-33.5), Counterinsurgency, released in December 2006, and therefore possessing the unique understanding and experience regarding the principles and fundamentals of pursuing a counterinsurgency strategy, states that `in the end, the host nation has to win on its own. Achieving this requires development of viable local leaders and institutions. U.S. forces and agencies can help, but host Nation elements must accept responsibilities to achieve real victory'.
14. Congress, through several bills and resolutions made it clear that it is not in the national interest of the United States to deepen its military involvement in Iraq,. The Senate disagrees with the `plan' to augment our forces by 21,500. Congress feels that the overall military, diplomatic and economic strategy should not be regarded as an `open-ended' or unconditional commitment, but rather a new strategy that hereafter should be conditioned upon the Iraqi government's meeting benchmarks that must be specified by the Administration. In the fall of 2006, leaders in the Administration and Congress, as well as recognized experts in the private sector began to express concern that the situation in Iraq was deteriorating and required a change in strategy, and, as a consequence, the Administration began an intensive, comprehensive review of the Iraq strategy, by all components of the Executive branch.
15. On February 13, 2007 H.RES.157 was passed by the House, with the concurrence of the Senate, on Roll No. 97, 232-192, that can be interpreted as a conviction of treason by the Senate if they should wish to impeach the President, to assure that Congress and the American people will continue to support and protect the members of the United States Armed Forces who are serving or who have served bravely and honorably in Iraq; and disapprove of the decision of President George W. Bush announced on January 10, 2007, to deploy more than 20,000 additional combat troops to Iraq..
16. The United States strategy and presence on the ground in Iraq can only be sustained with the support of the American people and bipartisan support from Congress. On February 5, 2007, the President submitted a request for supplemental appropriations for fiscal year 2007, including $5,600,000,000 to increase United States forces in the Iraqi theater of operations to support the Government of Iraq with 21,500 United States ground forces and an expanded Naval presence, that was rejected. At the same time, the President also submitted a grossly high proposed budget for fiscal year 2008 which did not request funding for these additional troops in Iraq. Congress therefore took the reigns and agreed to Revising the congressional budget for the United States Government for fiscal year 2007, establishing the congressional budget for the United States Government for fiscal year 2008, and setting forth appropriate budgetary levels for fiscal years 2009 through 2012. H. CON. RES. 99 that passed 216 to 210 on 29 March 2007, that was Resolved by the Senate with the House of Representatives concurring in S.CON.RES.21.ES that passed 52 to 47 on 23 March 2007. In making these calculations the Senate has worked together to remove reference to social security taxation and administration in their totals to expect only $1.9 trillion in revenues and approximately $2.3 trillion in spending. Funding is being regulated under Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2007 H.J.RES.20.PCS that makes further continuing appropriations for the fiscal year 2007, and became Public Law No: 110-5.
17. The $400 billion deficit is expected to bring the public debt to $8.9 trillion, $5 billion of which are held by the public. Social Security expects $637 billion in revenues and $447 billion in outlays, a $190 billion surplus. The military, has a budget of $619 billion with $560 billion in outlays, a $59 billion surplus without further investigation of both emergency supplemental and the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008 H.R.1585 that was placed on the Union Calendar, No. 86 on May 11, 2007. It should not be difficult to return $250 billion in funds for a deficit of only $150 billion. If waste, fraud and abuse in Defense programs can be reigned in for a gross aggregate military expenditure of not more than $400 billion it might be possible to balance the budget this year. International Affairs is showing improvement to $35 billion, 0.3% of the real GDP of $11 trillion, making progress towards the Goal of 0.7%. With these bills there is hope for a balanced budget if surplus funds can be returned to the Treasury and the war reserve can be limited to no more than 20% of real costs. It remains up to Congress to enforce the Balanced Budget Acts.
18. The dispute between the President and Congress regarding the President’s troop surge and Congress’s desire to redeploy the troops from Iraq caused unprecedented difficulties for the passage of the annual emergency supplemental for the war in Iraq. The U.S. Troop Readiness, Veterans' Health, and Iraq Accountability Act, 2007 H.R.1591 a $124.2 billion appropriations bill for the Global War on Terrorism and numerous other projects, failed to pass the House over the veto of the President by the Yeas and Nays: (2/3 required): 222 - 203, 1 Present (Roll no. 276). On May 10,2007 H. Res. 387 was agreed to by a yea-and-nay vote of 219 yeas to 199 nays, Roll No. 327 to provide consideration of three bills. H.R. 2237 to provide for the redeployment of United States Armed Forces and defense contractors from Iraq so that only certain Army Corp of Engineers and reconstruction projects would be approved failed 171 ayes to 255 noes, that would have begun redeployment in 90 days and finished in 180 days and prohibited further spending, in Roll No. 330. H.R. 2206 making $95 billion emergency supplemental appropriations for the fiscal year ending September 30, 2007, $40 billion for immediate disbursement and releasing the rest when Bush certifies that Iraq is meeting benchmarks and for other purposes, that passed by 221 yeas to 205 nays, on Roll No. 333. H.R. 2207 making supplemental appropriations for agricultural and other emergency assistance for the fiscal year ending September 30, 2007, and for other purposes that passed 302 yeas to 120 nays, Roll No. 336.
19. The Senate is entertaining the Support Our Troops Act of 2007 (Placed on Calendar in Senate) S.1305.PCS a bill making emergency war appropriations for American troops overseas, without unnecessary pork barrel spending and without mandating surrender or retreat in Iraq, for the fiscal year ending September 30, 2007, and for other purposes in Calendar No. 133. To make sense of the plans for military spending in Iraq supplemental appropriations for defense and for the reconstruction of Iraq for the fiscal year ending September 30, 2007, require the President to submit a request for additional funding after certifying substantial progress has been made in Iraq in meeting certain performance measures. For military functions administered by the Department of Defense, for necessary expenses to carry out military operations in Iraq, $25,000,000,000, to remain available until September 30, 2007. For necessary expenses to carry out the purposes of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, for security, relief, rehabilitation, and reconstruction in Iraq, $25,000,000,000, to remain available until September 30
20. Funds appropriated or otherwise made available to the Department of Defense under any provision of law may not be obligated or expended to increase the number of members of the United States Armed Forces serving in Iraq at any time in excess of the number of members serving in Iraq as of January 1, 2007, unless a specific authorization for the increase is enacted into law. Congress is committed to providing full protection for the troops and no action should undermine the safety of the US Armed Forces but is not pleased to have to pay for the troop surge that they did not authorize. The Service members Civil Relief Act was proposed to be extended from 90 days to one year the period during which the member is protected from mortgage foreclosure under that Act. It is also proposed to provide for free mailing privileges for personal correspondence and parcels sent to members of the Armed Forces serving on active duty in Iraq or Afghanistan any first-class mail. To conserve resources it is resolved to establish reporting requirements relating to funds made available for military operations in Iraq or the reconstruction of Iraq. Government investigations and media reports have detailed waste, fraud, and possible war profiteering by some of these contractors wherefore the Secretary of Defense shall review all allegations of contracting impropriety.
21. To improve regulation Congress will create a Truman Committee to conduct an ongoing study and investigation of the awarding and carrying out of contracts by the United States to conduct activities with regard to Operation Iraqi Freedom, and make such recommendations to the House as the select Committee deems appropriate. The Secretary of Defense, Secretary of State, Secretary of the Interior, and the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development are requested to provide Congress with a detailed accounting of how military and reconstruction funds in Iraq have been spent thus far of the types and terms of contracts awarded on behalf of the United States, including the methods by which such contracts were awarded and contractors selected, a description of efforts to obtain support and assistance from other countries toward the rehabilitation of Iraq, an assessment of what additional funding is needed to complete military operations and reconstruction efforts in Iraq, including a plan for security of Iraq, a detailed plan for how any future funds will be spent, and a statement of how those funds will advance the interests of the United States in Iraq.
22. It is proposed to require accountability and enhanced
congressional oversight for personnel performing private security functions
under Federal contracts, and for other purposes. Estimates of the number of contract personnel in Iraq, including
private security contractors, vary widely. The United States Central Command
estimated the number to be 100,000 in 2006, and the Government Accountability
Office concluded in 2005 that `the Department of Defense (DOD) estimated at
least 60 private security providers were working in Iraq with perhaps as many
as 25,000 employees. In March 2006, the Director of the Private Security
Company Association of Iraq estimated that approximately 181 private security
companies were working in Iraq with just over 48,000 employees. The various
functions carried out by these personnel have entailed great danger to these
personnel, but exact numbers of casualties are unknown. Estimates suggest that
some 770 contractors have died, and thousands more have been wounded, in Iraq
since 2003. Accounting on numbers,
costs and training of private contractors should be reported to the area
23. The Government of the United States has expended, through the Iraq Relief and Reconstruction Fund (IRRF), approximately 67 percent of the $20,912,000,000 in various reconstruction efforts in Iraq. To require the Government of Iraq to match, dollar for dollar, the amount of United States assistance awarded for the reconstruction of Iraq. To improve coordination, implementation, and oversight of United States economic reconstruction assistance for Iraq, and for other purposes the President of the United States with the confirmation of the Senate shall appoint a Coordinator of United States Economic Reconstruction Assistance for Iraq $45 million for refugees, $60 million for internally displaced persons, increasing limit on refugees from Iraq to US at least 20,000, $10 million for expedited processing of DHS, $30 million Office of Refugee Resettlement at DHHS an extending the functions of Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction. The President shall on a quarterly make economic reports on the conditions in Iraq. Civilian reconstruction volunteers solicited for the report of the Secretary of State.
24. Article 50(1) to Additional Protocol I to the Geneva Convention defines civilian as, `any person who does not belong to one of the categories of persons referred to in Article 4(A)(1), (2), (3), and (6) of the Third Convention and in Article 43 of this Protocol. In the case of doubt whether a person is a civilian, that person shall be considered a civilian. Article 51(7) to the Additional Protocol I of Geneva Convention states, `the presence or movement of the civilian population or individual civilians shall not be used to render certain points or areas immune from military operations, in particular in attempts to shield military objectives from attacks or to shield, favour or impede military operations. The Parties to the conflict shall not direct the movement of the civilian population or individual civilians in order to attempt to shield military objectives from attacks or to shield military operations.' Article 28, Relative to Convention IV, Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War of the Geneva Convention states, `The presence of a protected person may not be used to render certain points or areas immune from military operations.
25. On August 11, 2006, Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice stated, `Hezbollah and its sponsors have brought devastation upon the people of Lebanon, dragging them into a war that they did not choose, and exploiting them as human shields. Furthermore, the Quds Force, also known as the Qods Force, is a unit of Iran's Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps which carries out military operations outside of Iran and is responsible for the export of terrorism for Iran. The Quds Force provides weapons to and conducts paramilitary training and provides organizational, financial, and planning support for terrorist groups, namely Hamas, Hizbollah, Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ), the Al Aqsa Martyr's Brigades, and the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine-General Command (PFLP-GC), each of which is designated by the Secretary of State as a foreign terrorist organization under section 219 of the Immigration and Nationality Act 8 U.S.C. 1189.
26. Congress supports a United Nations Emergency Peace Service capable of intervening in the early stages of a humanitarian crisis could save millions of lives, billions of dollars, and is in the interests of the United States. At the 2005 World Summit, over 150 heads of state signed a document which the United Nations General Assembly adopted, declaring that `we are prepared to take collective action, in a timely and decisive manner, through the Security Council ... should peaceful means be inadequate and national authorities manifestly fail to protect their populations from genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing, and crimes against humanity. The international community spent approximately $200,000,000,000 on conflict management during the 1990s approximately $130,000,000,000 of that amount could have been saved through a more effective preventive approach to conflict management. UNEPS could be created for a start-up cost of $2,000,000,000 and annual costs of less than $1,000,000,000: The United States should use its voice, vote, and influence at the United Nations to facilitate and support the creation of a United Nations Emergency Peace Service (UNEPS) that should be able to provide an integrated service encompassing 12,000 to 18,000 civilian, police, judicial, military, and relief professionals.
27. To enhance the overseas stabilization and reconstruction capabilities of the United States Government, and for other purposes Congress finds that the resources of the United States Armed Forces have been burdened by having to undertake stabilization and reconstruction tasks in the Balkans, Afghanistan, Iraq, and other countries of the world that could have been performed by civilians, which has resulted in lengthy deployments for Armed Forces personnel. To provide for the continued development, as a core mission of the Department of State and the United States Agency for International Development, of an effective expert civilian response capability to carry out reconstruction and stabilization activities in a country or region that is at risk of, in, or is in transition from, conflict or civil strife. To authorize the presentation of flags at the funerals of civilian Federal employees engaged in the support of military operations who have died in combat zones in the course of their duties.
28. The civil war in Iraq was predicted by United States military commanders before the 2003 occupation of Iraq. The Bush Administration had been warned that while military action against the Hussein regime would likely succeed, rebuilding Iraq and winning the peace would be more difficult. In particular, intelligence reports from the Defense Intelligence Agency, the Pentagon's Joint Staff, the Department of State's Bureau of Intelligence and Research, and the Central Intelligence Agency's National Intelligence Council warned that United States troops could face significant postwar resistance. An Army War College report from February 2003 warned that without an `overwhelming' effort to prepare for the United States occupation of Iraq, `The United States may find itself in a radically different world over the next few years, a world in which the threat of Saddam Hussein seems like a pale shadow of new problems of America's own making.' Despite these warnings, the Bush Administration invaded Iraq without a comprehensive plan in place to secure and rebuild the country.
29. The Gulf War of 1992 did settle cleanly although Bush Sr. swiftly withdrew troops after crushing the Iraqi occupation of Kuwait. On October 31, 1998, the Iraq Liberation Act of 1998 (Public Law 105-338) was enacted into law without mentioning the fact that the US was bombing Iraq on a daily basis under the guise of a no fly zone whereas the US Ambassador to the UN Security Council would suppress this critical evidence. When Bush and Cheney took office the first goal they expressed was to attack Iraq that Congress refused whereas they were only willing to fight a defensive war. After being corrupted by the suicide attacks of 911 and the bloodshed in Operation Enduring Freedom on October 16, 2002, the Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq Resolution of 2002 (Public Law 107-243) was enacted into law.
30. On March 19, 2003, the President, pursuant to the authorities provided to the President by Public Law 107-243, committed United States Armed Forces to combat operations in Iraq. On April 9, 2003, Saddam Hussein's Ba'athist regime fell to Coalition Forces and on April 16, 2003, the Emergency Wartime Supplemental Appropriations Act, 2003 (Public Law 108-11) was enacted into law, which included $2,500,000,000 for the relief and reconstruction of Iraq. On May 1, 2003, under a banner displaying the words `Mission Accomplished,' President George W. Bush stated: `Major combat operations in Iraq have ended.'. At that point, the occupation of Iraq began. On May 12, 2003, the Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA) subsumed the Organization for Reconstruction and Humanitarian Assistance (ORHA), and citing United Nations Security Council Resolution 1483 (2003) and the laws of war, vested itself with executive, legislative, and judicial authority over the Iraqi government until such time as the Iraqi government gained its sovereignty. On May 13, 2003, the President stated, `We will stay as long as necessary to make sure that the Iraqi people have a government of, by and for the Iraqi people. And then we'll come home.
31. On November 6, 2003, the Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act for Defense and for the Reconstruction of Iraq and Afghanistan, 2004 (Public Law 108-106) was enacted into law, which included an additional $18,400,000,000 for the relief and reconstruction of Iraq pursuant to the Madrid Conference It was not until June 8, 2004 that the occupation of Iraq was tacitly acknowledged by the United Nations Security Council in Resolution 1546 (2004), endorsing the transition of sovereignty from the Coalition Provisional Authority to the Interim Government of Iraq, reaffirming the responsibilities of the interim government, and detailing the duration and legal status of Coalition Forces in Iraq, as well as authorizing a Coalition component force to protect United Nations personnel and facilities. April 13, 2004, President George W. Bush stated: `As a proud and independent people, Iraqis do not support an indefinite occupation and neither does America’.
32. On June 28, 2004, the new Iraqi government gained its sovereignty. On January 30, 2005, the Iraqi people successfully elected their first interim National Assembly, and 18 provincial and various local government councils. On March 16, 2005, the 275-member interim Iraqi National Assembly convened to appoint an interim national government and to begin the drafting of a constitution. On September 18, 2005, the interim Iraqi National Assembly completed negotiations on the draft constitution. On October 15, 2005, the Iraqi people approved the draft constitution by a national referendum
33. On November 8, 2005, the United Nations Security Council adopted Resolution 1637 (2005), extending the Coalition Forces' military mandate, pursuant to United Nations Security Council Resolution 1546 (2004), in Iraq to December 31, 2006. On February 17, 2005, Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld, testifying before the Committee on Armed Services of the Senate, stated: `We have no intention, at the present time, of putting permanent bases in Iraq’. On November 18, 2005, the House of Representatives failed to agree to H. Res. 571, expressing the sense of the House of Representatives that the deployment of United States forces in Iraq be terminated immediately, by a vote of 3 to 403, with six members voting present. On November 30, 2005, the President, through the National Security Council, issued the National Strategy for Victory in Iraq.
34. On December 15, 2005, the people of Iraq voted to elect the first permanent National Assembly in accordance with the Constitution of the Republic of Iraq. In January 2006 a University of Maryland Program on International Policy Attitudes poll found that even if the Government of Iraq asked the United States to withdraw its military forces in 6 months, 76 percent of Iraqis would assume the United States would refuse to do so. The perception that the United States intends to permanently occupy Iraq aids insurgent groups in recruiting supporters and fuels violent activity. On March 16, 2006, the newly-elected National Assembly convened for their first session. On May 20, 2006, the Iraqi Prime Minister-designee named a cabinet, except for the posts of Minister of Defense and Minister of Interior, and the Prime Minister-designee and the cabinet received a vote of confidence from the National Assembly. On June 7, 2006, Iraq's National Assembly approved the individuals that the Iraqi Prime Minister nominated for Minister of Defense, Minister of Interior, and National Security Advisor, completing the formation of Iraq's first permanent democratic government
35. On June 15, 2006, the Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act for Defense, the Global War on Terror, and Hurricane Recovery, 2006 (Public Law 109-234), was enacted into law, providing $400,000,000 for civil-military Provincial Reconstruction Teams, composed of members of the United States Armed Forces and Coalition Forces and personnel of the Department of State, United States Agency for International Development, Department of Justice, Department of Agriculture, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and contract personnel
36. On June 25, 2006, the Iraqi Prime Minister released a 24-point plan for national reconciliation. The Iraq Study Group was formed at the urging of Congress, and the Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act for Defense, the Global War On Terror, and Hurricane Recovery, 2006 (Public Law 109-234), provided $1,000,000 for Iraq Study Group operations. Members of the Iraq Study Group were appointed in March 2006 and were responsible for providing a forward-looking, independent assessment of the strategic environment in and around Iraq, the security of Iraq and key challenges to enhancing security within the country, political developments within Iraq following the elections and formation of the new government, the economy and reconstruction, and how the situation in Iraq affects the surrounding region as well as United States interests. President Bush codified the prohibition on the establishment of permanent military bases in Iraq using funds available for fiscal year 2007 by signing into law H.R. 5631 (`An Act making appropriations for the Department of Defense for the fiscal year ending September 30, 2007, and for other purposes'; Public Law 109-289) on September 29, 2006, and H.R. 5122 (the John Warner National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2007; Public Law 109-364) on October 17, 2006.
37. On July 27, 2006, the Government of Iraq and the United Nations, with the support of the World Bank, announced the formal launch of a five-year international compact with Iraq that, with the participation of other multilateral organizations and countries, including the United States, aims to achieve a national vision for Iraq as a united, federal, and democratic country. On December 6, 2006, the Iraq Study Group released its report titled, `The Iraq Study Group Report'. The Iraq Study Group Report recommends: `The President should state that the United States does not seek permanent military bases in Iraq. Congress declares that it is the policy of the United States not to establish any military installation or base for the purpose of providing for the permanent stationing of United States Armed Forces in Iraq; and not to exercise United States control of the oil resources of Iraq. On December 30, 2006, Saddam Hussein was executed by the Government of Iraq. On January 10, 2007, the President addressed the American people and provided a plan entitled `The New Way Forward in Iraq'.
38. On September 30, 2006, there were an estimated 24,000,000 living veterans 7.8 percent of the total estimated resident population of the United States and Puerto Rico are recipients, or potential recipients, of veterans' benefits from the Federal Government. For fiscal year 2008, it is estimated that there will be 5,800,000 veterans seeking medical care from the Federal Government, and that 2,800,000 veterans will receive compensation for service-related conditions. Effective care for the Armed Forces and Veterans is important for veterans of the War on Terrorism. According to a 2003 study conducted by the United States Army, 15 to 20 percent, 1 in 6, of veterans of the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan are showing symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder `PTSD'. Approximately 20 to 25 percent of the women who served in Vietnam and in the Persian Gulf War developed PTSD, and psychologists are expecting figures to be at least as high for Operation Iraqi Freedom. The long-term costs of treating members of the Armed Forces returning from Iraq and Afghanistan could ultimately reach $700,000,000,000, with post-traumatic stress disorder projected to be one of the most expensive conditions to treat. The Department of Veterans Affairs should better prepare its police force to interact with patients and visitors at Department medical facilities who suffer from mental illness. The civil rights of veterans alleged to be mentally ill must be protected to prevent unjustified hospitalizations and discrimination preventing them from telling the truth about the war. PTSD is a real concern.
39. According to the Department of Veterans Affairs, nearly one in three veterans who served in Operation Iraqi Freedom sought mental health care within one year after their return from combat in Iraq or Afghanistan. The Department of Defense reports that more than 10 percent of all medical evacuations from Iraq and Afghanistan are for mental health reasons. The Department of Veterans Affairs has already seen and diagnosed more than 73,000 veterans with a mental health condition at Veterans Affairs hospitals, and more than 144,000 were provided mental health counseling for post-combat readjustment problems. The Department of Defense is facing a shortage of mental health professionals. The Department has had as many as 450 psychologists on active duty in the Armed Forces in past years. However, the Department currently has only 350 psychologists on active duty in the Armed Forces in support of combat operations. Approximately 40 percent of the billets for licensed clinical psychologists in the Army are vacant, and there are shortages in other mental health professions, including psychiatry and clinical social work. The Secretary of Defense shall establish within the Department of Defense at least two centers of excellence in military mental health. Each such center shall be known as a `Center of Excellence in Military Mental Health. Currently, there are 700,000 children in the United States with at least one parent deployed to support ongoing military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan.
40. Whereas many of the brave men and women who have served the United States so gallantly and selflessly in the war on terrorism and the war in Iraq since September 11, 2001, are beginning to return home to be reunited with their loved ones and will be re-entering the workforce or searching for their first jobs outside of military service; Congress encourages the President to issue a proclamation calling upon employers, labor organizations, veterans service organizations, and Federal, State, and local governmental agencies to lend their support to increase employment of the men and women who have served in the Armed Forces of the United States and work credit for employers of veterans of operations in Afghanistan and Iraq. Fort Worth Airport welcomes 200 troops coming home a day. If a member of the National Guard serves on active duty for one year or more in support of a contingency operation or homeland defense mission, the member shall be given the option of serving on full-time National Guard duty for up to 90 days upon being relieved from that active duty in order to ease the transition of the member to civilian life.
41. Pell Grant eligibility for any student whose parent or guardian died as a result of performing military service in Iraq or Afghanistan after September 11, 2001 shall be ensured under Section 401(f) of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1070a(f). Congress seeks to provide certain enhancements to the Montgomery GI Bill Program for certain individuals who serve as members of the Armed Forces after the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, and for other purposes and notwithstanding section 3011(b) or 3012 of title 38, United States Code, so that no reduction in basic pay otherwise required by such section shall be made in the case of a covered member of the Armed Forces. August 16, 2007 is designated `National Airborne Day' whereas that day marks the anniversary of the first official Army parachute jump on August 16, 1940. Whereas more than 1,000,000 brave men and women from the United States have died in military conflicts from the time of the Revolutionary War through Operation Iraqi Freedom the United States flag flown over the United States Capitol should be lowered to half-mast one day each month. Restriction of the attendance of family, the press and public at military facilities for mourning shall be lifted.
42. The President must develop a plan containing dates certain for the commencement and completion of a phased redeployment of United States Armed Forces from Iraq. The President must submit a status of forces brief to the Iraqi Government and determine whether the Government of Iraq has given United States Armed Forces and Iraqi Security Forces the authority to pursue all extremists, including Sunni insurgents and Shiite militias, and is making substantial progress in delivering necessary Iraqi Security Forces for Baghdad and protecting such Forces from political interference; intensifying efforts to build balanced security forces throughout Iraq that provide even-handed security for all Iraqis; eliminating militia control of local security; establishing a strong militia disarmament program; ensuring fair and just enforcement of laws; establishing political, media, economic, and service committees in support of the Baghdad Security Plan; and eradicating safe havens. The Government of Iraq must make substantial progress in meeting its commitment to pursue reconciliation initiatives, including enactment of a hydro-carbon law; adoption of legislation necessary for the conduct of provincial and local elections; reform of current laws governing the de-Baathification process; amendment of the Constitution of Iraq; and allocation of Iraqi revenues for reconstruction projects. Ultimately the Government of Iraq and United States Armed Forces must make substantial progress in reducing the level of sectarian violence in Iraq.
43. In an October 2005 referendum, the Iraqi people voted to approve Iraq's Constitution, setting up an Islamic federal democracy while strengthening the rights of women and minorities in that country. On December 15, 2005, Iraqis voted in the first multi-party elections in that country in 50 years. It is not the intent of Congress to question or contravene the authority of the President, but to accept the offer to Congress made by the President on January 10, 2007, that, `if members have improvements that can be made, we will make them. If circumstances change, we will adjust'. Consolidation of Congressional plans call upon the Iraqi Government to show visible signs of progress towards meeting eight specific benchmarks,
A. Iraqi Forces - the assumption by Iraq of control of its military to pursue those who engage in violence or threaten the security of the Iraq population, regardless of sect or political affiliation by developing and implementing a rotation schedule that allows all Iraqi Army battalions to participate in operations in battlefield conditions, such as those combat conditions found in Baghdad and al Anbar Province
B. Regulating the Militia - the enactment of a Militia Law to disarm and demobilize militias, including the Badr Brigade and Jaish al Mahdi and to ensure that provincial Iraqi security forces are accountable only to the central government and loyal to the constitution of Iraq by purging individuals with ties to insurgents, sectarian militias, and terrorism from the security services while building an effective, independent judiciary that will uphold the rule of law, and ensure equal protection under the law for all citizens of Iraq and adopt reforms to promote justice, equality, and the rule of law, and ensuring financial and transparent accountability of all Iraqi Government ministries and operations.
C. Constitutional Reform - the completion of the review of the constitution of Iraq and the holding of a referendum on special amendments to the constitution of Iraq under Article 137 of the Constitution to ensure fair and equitable participation in the Government of Iraq without regard to religious sect or ethnicity while developing and implementing a strategy to promote tolerance, peace, and co-existence among Iraqis, which should particularly address how to decrease sectarian tensions and violence.
D. Provincial Elections - the completion of provincial election law and preparation for the conduct of provincial elections that ensures equitable constitution of provincial representative bodies without regard to religious sect or ethnicity.
E. Oil Revenue Sharing Law - The enactment and implementation of legislation to ensure that the resources and oil revenues of Iraq benefit Sunni Arabs, Shia Arabs, Kurds, and other Iraqi citizens in an equitable manner providing and ensuring equal access to resources to all Iraqis and augmenting the capability of reconstruction programs and economic institutions
F. De-Ba’athification Process - the enactment and implementation of legislation that equitably reforms the de-Ba'athification process in Iraq under which members critical to the functioning of a civil society are allowed to reenter Iraq’s political and economic life.
G. $10 billion Iraq Contribution to Reconstruction - expending promised funds to provide basic services and employment opportunities for all Iraqis, including a $10 billion fund for reconstruction and job creation, and ensuring that these funds reach both Sunni and Shi’ia areas, including Sunni neighborhoods in Baghdad and largely Sunni Anbar Province.
H. Diplomacy - co-operating and coordinating internationally to help stabilize Iraq while denying terrorists and their state-sponsors, particularly Iran and Syria, the use of Iraqi territory as a terrorist sanctuary 
44. Congress has appropriated over $15 billion to train and equip the security forces of Iraq since April 2004. In a November 2006 Department of Defense report to Congress regarding the status of security in Iraq, 91 of 118 battalions, 30 of 36 brigades, and six of ten divisions were in the lead when conducting operations, with the United States in supporting roles. The Iraqi Ground Forces Command had command and control of two of the ten Iraqi Army divisions and only two of Iraq's 18 provinces were in Provincial Iraqi Control, operating independently of Coalition forces. In an effort to allow Iraqis to take over security operations, approximately 265,000 Iraqi Security Forces (ISF) have received varying levels of training, nearing the total force goal of 325,000 by August 2007. The Administration has reported in the March 2007 report entitled `Measuring Stability and Security in Iraq' that the number of Iraqi security forces nearing combat proficiency is 328,700
Level 1 means a battalion that can conduct independent combat operations without support from Coalition forces in Iraq
Level 2 means a battalion that can conduct independent combat operations, but only with logistical support, or non-combat-related support from Coalition forces in Iraq. The Coalition forces will not help with direct combat in support of the battalion
Level 3 means a battalion that can participate in combat operations alongside Coalition forces, but cannot conduct independent combat operations without direct combat support from Coalition forces in Iraq
Level 4 means a battalion that cannot participate in combat operations, even with support from Coalition forces in Iraq.
45. Only approximately 10,000 of the more than 370,000 small arms weapons purchased by the DoD for the Iraqi Security Services may have been properly registered in the Department of Defense's Registry of the Small Arms Serialization Program and better regulation is needed. Private contributors have supplied Iraqi police forces with over 20,000 bulletproof vests to date and US forces with 35,000 helmet upgrade kits. Congress is of the opinion that the Government of Iraq should not grant blanket amnesty to persons known to have attacked, killed, or wounded members of the United States Armed Forces subsequent to December 15, 2005, the date on which the people of Iraq elected a permanent government of Iraq.
46. Congress is of the opinion to enhance America's security through redeployment from Iraq. The worsening situation in Iraq is a product of ongoing sectarian violence in which the United States Armed Forces have been asked to take sides and referee an ongoing civil war. Sending more United States troops to Iraq, and remaining there indefinitely, will only further increase the dependence of the people of Iraq on the United States, both politically and militarily, at a time when Iraqis should be shouldering increased responsibility for their country. The insurgency in Iraq has been fueled by the United States occupation and the prospect of a long-term presence as indicated by the building of permanent United States military bases. A United States declaration of an intention to withdraw United States troops and close military bases will help dampen the insurgency which has been inspired to resist colonization and fight aggressors and those who have supported United States policy. The cost of withdrawing United States troops from Iraq could be as low as $10 billion according to the Congressional Budget Office. Two bills, not including the emergency supplemental have already failed. Several bills have been introduced to redeploy troops from Iraq they are listed below with a caption and letter grade signifying their merit in the opinion of this author. Congress should enroll these bills for passage on a daily basis for a vote on redeployment not less than once a week to be effective.
A. Expressing the sense of Congress that Iraq should vote to approve or disapprove the continued deployment of United States Armed Forces to Iraq H.CON.RES.110 that requires Iraq to vote to approve or disapprove the continued deployment of United States Armed Forces to Iraq and, unless 60% of the Iraq Council of Representatives or Iraqi general voting public votes to approve such continued deployment, the President of the United States should commence the phased redeployment of United States Armed Forces from Iraq within 60 days of the Iraqi vote. A+
B. Iraq War De-Escalation Act of 2007 S.433 the phased redeployment of the Armed Forces of the United States from Iraq shall commence not later than May 1, 2007 to achieve the goal of the complete redeployment of all United States combat brigades from Iraq by March 31, 2008. If Iraq so desires and complies with numerous requirement the redeployment can be suspended. In 90 days the President shall submit a report on progress of Iraq and the redeployment. A
C. Comprehensive Strategy for Iraq Act of 2007 H.R.645 provides a plan for phasing out the number of members of the Armed Forces in Iraq so that the use of military force, as authorized by the Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq Resolution of 2002 (Public Law 107-243; 50 U.S.C. 1541 note), ends no later than December 31, 2007. $2 billion are appropriated each year for employment, democracy and governance 2008-2010. A.
D. Bring the Troops Home and Iraq Sovereignty Restoration Act of 2007 H.R.508 requires United States military disengagement from Iraq, to provide United States assistance for reconstruction and reconciliation in Iraq. The Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq Resolution of 2002 (Public Law 107-243; 50 U.S.C. 1541 note) is repealed. Not later than the end of the six-month period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act, all United States Armed Forces serving in Iraq shall be withdrawn from Iraq and returned to the United States or redeployed outside of the Middle East. Troops may be redeployed if the Iraqi government requests such a re-stabilization effort. No private or foreign contractor may enter into Iraq petroleum contracts. $100 million to survey damages. $500 million for Iraqi reconstruction corps. $250 million for the destruction of land mines. $500 million to dispose of fortifications. $250 million for archaeological restoration. $200 million for tort claims. $25 million Iraq institute of Peace. $1 billion international fund for to redevelop civic institutions. $1.7 billion public health. Assured health funding for Veterans. Joint Select Committee. A
E. To end the United States occupation of Iraq immediately H.R.1234 calls for the United States to end the occupation of Iraq immediately, simultaneously with the introduction of a United Nations-led international peacekeeping force. The United States should provide funding for a United Nations peacekeeping mission, in which 50 percent of the peacekeeping troops should come from nations with large Muslim populations the international security force, under United Nations direction, should remain in place until the Iraqi Government is capable of handling its own security. Not later than the end of the 3-month period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act, all United States Armed Forces serving in Iraq shall be completely withdrawn from Iraq and returned to the United States or redeployed outside of the Middle East. This solution upholds international law. A
F. Protect the Troops and Bring Them Home Act of 2007 H.R.455 funds appropriated or otherwise made available to the Department of Defense under any provision of law may be obligated or expended within the Republic of Iraq only for the purpose of providing for the continued protection of members of the Armed Forces who are in Iraq pending their withdrawal, the safe and orderly withdrawal of the United States Armed Forces from Iraq pursuant to a schedule that provides for commencement of the withdrawal not later than 30 days after the date of the enactment of this Act and completion of the withdrawal not later than December 31, 2007. A-
G. United States Policy in Iraq Resolution of 2007 S.J.RES.9 failed to pass in Senate by a Yea-Nay Vote of 48 to 50 was recorded as Vote Number: 75. The bill calls for the President shall commence the phased redeployment of United States forces from Iraq not later than 120 days after the date of the enactment of this joint resolution, with the goal of redeploying, by March 31, 2008. This bill differs from the bills above in that it requires that not later than 60 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, and every 90 days thereafter, the President shall submit to Congress a report on the progress made in transitioning the mission of the United States forces in Iraq and implementing the phased redeployment of United States forces from Iraq. B+
H. To provide for the redeployment of United States Armed Forces and defense contractors from Iraq H.R.2237 failed to pass 171 - 255 (Roll no. 330). Not later than 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Secretary of Defense shall commence the redeployment. The Secretary of Defense shall complete the redeployment of the Armed Forces and defense contractors from Iraq within 180 days. Troops shall be redeployed anywhere outside of Iraq where that government has invited them. B+
I. Enhancing America's Security through Redeployment from Iraq Act H.R.960 proposes to enhance the national security interests of the United States both at home and abroad by setting a deliberate timetable for the redeployment of United States Armed Forces from Iraq by December 31, 2007 to locations within the Middle East or Southwest Asia regions or to other regions or nations, or returned to the United States. B+
J. Iraq Troop Protection and Reduction Act of 2007 S.670 aims to protect and reduce levels of United States military forces in Iraq completing redeployment from Iraq by the end of the current term in office of the President. B+
K. New Direction for Iraq Act of 2007 H.R.663 provides that not later than 30 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Secretary of Defense shall begin the redeployment of United States Armed Forces from Iraq in the shortest possible time frame of not more than one year. No permanent military base or US ownership of oil. Seeks to provide assistance through business and civil sector for which $40 million are appropriated annually 2007-2010. Calls for disarming of militias under the neutral international advisors. Seeks to terminate all unfulfilled contracts. Establishes a bilateral refugee program for 20,000 unallocated refugee admissions, from Iraq, authorized by Presidential Determination No. 2007-1. B+
L. To safely redeploy United States troops from Iraq H.R.2031 and S.1077 call for the President to commence the safe, phased redeployment of United States forces from Iraq not later than 120 days after the date of the enactment of this Act and that no funds appropriated or otherwise made available under any provision of law may be obligated or expended to continue the deployment in Iraq of members of the United States Armed Forces after March 31, 2008. Exempt from these conditions are targeted operations, limited in duration and scope, against members of al Qaeda and other international terrorist organizations, troops providing security for United States infrastructure and personnel and those training and equipping Iraqi security services. B
M. To redeploy U.S. forces from Iraq H.J.RES.18 whereas over 91 percent of Sunni Iraqis and 74 percent of Shiite Iraqis want the U.S. forces out of Iraq and 61 percent of the Iraqi people feel that the attacks on U.S. forces are justified the deployment of United States forces in Iraq, by direction of Congress, is hereby terminated and the forces involved are to be redeployed at the earliest practicable date. A quick-reaction U.S. force and an over-the-horizon presence of U.S. Marines shall be deployed in the region. The United States of America shall pursue security and stability in Iraq through diplomacy. B
N. To provide for the redeployment of United States forces from Iraq H.R.1837 and S.121 calls for not later than 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, the President, in consultation with the Secretary of Defense and the Joint Chiefs of Staff, shall transmit to Congress a plan, containing dates certain, for the commencement and completion of a phased redeployment of United States Armed Forces from Iraq taking into consideration the capability of equivalent Iraqi security forces. The Iraqi National Council will vote on the plan and 60% must ratify it. B
O. Change the Course in Iraq Act H.R.1460 commends the members of the
United States Armed Forces on their performance and bravery in Iraq, repeals
the Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq Resolution (Public Law
107-243), to require the Secretary of Defense to submit to Congress a plan for
the phased redeployment of United States Armed Forces from Iraq in 60 days, to
establish a Coordinator for Iraq Stabilization in 30 days, and to place
conditions on the obligation of funds to the Government of Iraq based on the
achievement of benchmarks established by Iraq and the United States. B
P. To provide a comprehensive strategy for stabilizing Iraq and redeploying United States troops from Iraq within one year S.679 prohibits the use of funds to continue deployment of the United States Armed Forces in Iraq beyond six months after the date of the enactment of this Act. Exempt are those conducting targeted counterterrorism operations in Iraq, providing security for United States infrastructure and civilian personnel and those training Iraqi security personnel. Not later than 60 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of State shall jointly submit to Congress a report describing a strategy for the redeployment of members of the Armed Forces from Iraq not later than 180 days after such date of enactment containing estimates of exemptions. B-
Q. Iraq Redeployment Act of 2007 S.448 prohibits the use of funds to continue deployment of the United States Armed Forces in Iraq beyond six months after the date of the enactment of this Act. Exempt are those conducting targeted counterterrorism operations in Iraq, providing security for United States infrastructure and civilian personnel and those training Iraqi security personnel. B-
R. Iraq Benchmarks Act H.R.1263 redeploys United States Armed Forces from the non-Kurdish areas of Iraq if certain security, political, and economic benchmarks relating to Iraq are not met. If the President is unable to make the determinations regarding deadlines specified in such section, or if a joint resolution disapproving any such determination is enacted into law, then the Secretary of Defense shall, not later than 30 days or the date of the enactment of the joint resolution, commence the redeployment of the Armed Forces from the non-Kurdish areas of Iraq, and complete such redeployment not later than 180 days after the date of the commencement of such redeployment. B-
S. Military Success in Iraq And Diplomatic Surge for National and Political Reconciliation in Iraq Act of 2007 H.R.930 determines the authorization of military force contained in Public Law 107-243 has expired. Not later than October 1, 2007, or 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, whichever shall occur first, all units and members of the Armed Forces deployed to Iraq and all security forces under contract or subcontract with the United States Government and working in Iraq shall be withdrawn from Iraq. B-
47. Article I, Section 8 of the United States Constitution grants Congress the power `to declare war,' to lay and collect taxes, to `provide for the common defense' and general welfare of the United States, to `raise and support armies,' to `provide and maintain a navy,' to `make rules for the regulation for the land and naval forces,' to `provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the Union, suppress insurrections and repel invasions,' to `provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the militia,' and to `make all laws necessary and proper for carrying into execution all powers vested by the Constitution in the Government of the United States'. Congress is not only responsible for declaring war but for bringing their troops home safely and for disciplining them, including the commander and chief who has been convicted by the 110th Congress of the impeachable offense of treason in H.RES.157. The Speaker of the House made a serious mistake, in the opinion of both parties who can only agree that they dislike the actions of the President, when she took impeachment off the table because it enabled the President to act with impunity in regards to troop surge in retaliation against the Iraq Study Group Report. It has however been re-introduced that Richard B. Cheney, Vice President of the United States, is impeached for high crimes and misdemeanors H.RES.333 and the Speaker is recommended to relinquish her ban on the proceedings now under the heading of Bush and Dick v. Her Majesty the Queen HA-3-3-05 although the unauthorized troop surge presents enough justification for impeachment.
48. In conclusion Congress must be more effective in their resolve to bring the troops home safely. There is no more effective method than utilizing Iraq democracy whereas it the Iraqi political situation that we are trying to save from sectarian violence. Therefore Expressing the sense of Congress that Iraq should vote to approve or disapprove the continued deployment of United States Armed Forces to Iraq H.CON.RES.110 that requires Iraq to vote to approve or disapprove the continued deployment of United States Armed Forces to Iraq and, unless 60% of the Iraq Council of Representatives or Iraqi general voting public votes to approve such continued deployment, the President of the United States should commence the phased redeployment of United States Armed Forces from Iraq within 60 days of the Iraqi vote is the most highly recommended act for both Congress and the Iraqi National Council to pass.
49. To better regulate the withdrawal Bring the Troops Home and Iraq Sovereignty Restoration Act of 2007 H.R.508 that requires United States military disengagement from Iraq and makes many conscientious plans for reconstruction and to end the United States occupation of Iraq immediately H.R.1234 calls for the United States to end the occupation of Iraq immediately, simultaneously with the introduction of a 50% Muslim United Nations-led international peacekeeping force whose completion date might be overridden by the Iraq War De-Escalation Act of 2007 S.433 that plans for the phased redeployment of the Armed Forces of the United States from Iraq to commence not later than May 1, 2007 to achieve the goal of the complete redeployment of all United States combat brigades from Iraq by March 31, 2008 as recommended by the Iraq Study Group. Not a week should go by that Congress does not vote on a Iraq withdrawal bill. The merits are a continuing plan for the funding Iraqi civil society, a plan for vacating the Middle East entirely so as not let the conflict smolder as it did for a decade before our occupation, and most of all deference to Iraqi parliamentary democracy.
 Expressing the sense of Congress that the President should not order an escalation in the total number of members of the United States Armed Forces serving in Iraq. (Introduced in House)[H.CON.RES.23.IH]
 To express the sense of Congress on Iraq. (Placed on Calendar in Senate)[S.470.PCS] Expressing the sense of Congress on Iraq. (Introduced in Senate)[S.CON.RES.7.IS], Expressing the sense of Congress that the President should not order an escalation in the total number of members of the United States Armed Forces serving in Iraq. (Introduced in House)[H.CON.RES.23.IH], Whereas the current strategy in Iraq is not working to achieve the national security objectives of the United States; (Introduced in House)[H.CON.RES.65.IH], To prohibit an escalation in United States military forces in Iraq without prior authorization by Congress. (Introduced in Senate)[S.308.IS], . To express the sense of Congress on Iraq. (Placed on Calendar in Senate)[S.574.PCS]
 Resolved, That Richard B. Cheney, Vice President of the United States, is impeached for high crimes and misdemeanors, and that the following articles of impeachment be exhibited to... (Introduced in House)[H.RES.333.IH]
 Providing for consideration of the concurrent resolution (H. Con. Res. 63) disapproving of the decision of the President announced on January 10, 2007, to deploy more than 20,000 additional... (Reported in House)[H.RES.157.RH] 2/13/2007 Passed/agreed to in House. Status: On agreeing to the resolution Agreed to by recorded vote: 232 - 192 (Roll no. 97). Resolved by the House of Representatives (the Senate concurring), That-- (Referred to Senate Committee after being Received from House)[H.CON.RES.63.RFS]
 Expressing the sense of the Senate that no action should be taken to undermine the safety of the Armed Forces of the United States or impact their ability to complete their assigned duties... (Agreed to by Senate)[S.RES.107.ATS], Expressing the sense of the Senate that no action should be taken to undermine the safety of the Armed Forces of the United States or impact their ability to complete their assigned... (Introduced in Senate)[S.RES.101.IS]
 To prohibit the use of funds for an escalation of United States military forces in Iraq above the numbers existing as of January 9, 2007. (Introduced in Senate)[S.233.IS], To prohibit the use of funds for an escalation of United States military forces in Iraq above the numbers existing as of January 9, 2007. (Placed on Calendar in Senate)[S.287.PCS], To prohibit the use of funds for an escalation of United States forces in Iraq above the numbers existing as of January 9, 2007. (Introduced in House)[H.R.353.IH]
 To amend the Servicemembers Civil Relief Act to extend from 90 days to one year the period after release of a member of the Armed Forces from active duty during which the member is... (Introduced in House)[H.R.1750.IH]
 To amend the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2006 to expand the provision of special immigrant status for certain aliens, including translators or interpreters, serving... (Introduced in House)[H.R.1790.IH]
 Whereas the term `human shields' refers to the use of civilians, prisoners of war, or other noncombatants whose mere presence is designed to protect combatants and objects from attack; (Engrossed as Agreed to or Passed by House)[H.RES.125.EH] /25/2007 Passed/agreed to in House. Status: On motion to suspend the rules and agree to the resolution, as amended Agreed to by voice vote.
 Expressing the sense of the House of Representatives that a United Nations Emergency Peace Service capable of intervening in the early stages of a humanitarian crisis could save millions... (Introduced in House)[H.RES.213.IH]
 Whereas on April 13, 2004, President George W. Bush stated: `As a proud and independent people, Iraqis do not support an indefinite occupation and neither does America.'; (Introduced in House)[H.CON.RES.46.IH]
 To provide for a presumption of service-connectedness for certain claims for benefits under the laws administered by the Secretary of Veterans Affairs, and for other purposes. (Introduced in House)[H.R.1490.IH], Lane Evans Veterans Health and Benefits Improvement Act of 2007 (Introduced in Senate)[S.117.IS]
 Whereas the people of the United States have a sincere appreciation and respect for the military personnel who serve in the Armed Forces of the United States; (Engrossed as Agreed to or Passed by House)[H.CON.RES.5.EH]
 Recognizing the employees of Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport, the North Texas Commission, USO, and the people and businesses of North Texas for their dedication to the `Welcome... (Introduced in House)[H.RES.391.IH]
 To amend title 32, United States Code, to provide members of the National Guard additional time to transition to civilian life when they return from active duty in support of contingency... (Introduced in House)[H.R.2059.IH]
 Expressing the sense of the Congress that the United States flag flown over the United States Capitol should be lowered to half-mast one day each month in honor of the brave men and... (Introduced in House)[H.CON.RES.61.IH]
 Calling for the removal of all restrictions from the public, the press, and military families in mourning that would prohibit their presence at the arrival at military installations... (Introduced in House)[H.CON.RES.29.IH]
 To require the President to develop a plan containing dates certain for the commencement and completion of a phased redeployment of United States Armed Forces from Iraq, and for other... (Introduced in House)[H.R.1837.IH]
 Expressing the sense of Congress that the Government of the United States should submit to the Government of Iraq a draft bilateral status-of-forces agreement by not later than September 1, 2007... (Introduced in House)[H.CON.RES.97.IH]
 Expressing the sense of the Senate that the Commander of Multinational Forces-Iraq and all United States personnel under his command should receive from Congress the full support necessary... (Introduced in Senate)[S.RES.70.IS] John McCain
 Recognizing the significance of the contribution of the Brotherhood of the Badge to the Global War on Terror through its provision of surplus law enforcement equipment to Iraqi police... (Introduced in House)[H.RES.358.IH]
 Recognizing and commending Dr. Robert Meaders and all of the volunteers and contributors of Operation Helmet for their efforts in sending out 35,000 helmet upgrade kits to members of... (Introduced in House)[H.CON.RES.92.IH]
 Expressing the sense of Congress that the Government of Iraq should not grant blanket amnesty to persons known to have attacked, killed, or wounded members of the United States Armed... (Introduced in House)[H.CON.RES.15.IH]