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To supplement Chapter 8 Gorgas Hospital §300-320. The FAO reports a rise in world hunger since 2016 after a prolonged decline. P.L. 480 International Agricultural Assistance Programs is due arrears for 3% annual outlay growth from 2017. Proposed Agriculture Department budget cuts are overruled by recalls of Salmonella contaminated eggs, moldy grain, and imported coffee contaminated with equal parts bad water, farm animal feces, coffee leaf rust Hemileia vastatrix damaged Coffea arabica, and robusta C. canephora genetically inferior rust resistant strain to be labeled and sold for less under Arts. 24 and 25 of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety of 2000 and Nagoyo Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from Their Utilization to the Convention on Biological Diversity of 2010. The USDA budget request is re-estimated to grow 2.5% while most outlays and other estimates for USDA agricultural services grow 3% annually. The Budget office must produce a consolidated balance sheet to more accurately estimate federal outlays, undistributed offsetting receipts and congressional budget authority. Agriculture outlays grow 2.5% government, 3% services and 3.3% SNAP to sustain 2.7% average annual consumer price inflation and 0.6% population growth, 1% net new employees and 1.5% raise, except the Forest Service who deserves to be cut to prevent 65 times greater risk of forest fire than the Park Service. The Court held that the import controls were discriminatory. The guiding principles were economic liberty without any inequality and equality of treatment in the Case concerning rights of nationals of the United States of America in Morocco (1952). To end trade war tariffs must not exceed 6%. States must remove any impediments arising to the free exportation of goods required for humanitarian needs such as food, medicine and civil engineering Alleged violations of the 1955 Treaty of Amity, Economic Relations, and Consular Rights (Islamic Republic of Iran v. United States of America) (2018). To legalize marijuana worldwide the UN is sued to remove it from the Drug Schedule, delete Drugs from the UN Office of Crime, and transfer INCB to WHO under Art. 36 of the Statute of the Court. Congress must repeal the Authority for Employment of the FBI and DEA under 5USC§3151-3152 and at the end of 5USC§5301(b), DEA first under 28CFR§0.85(a). Since 2001 prescription opiate drug overdoses increased 1,000%, in 2005 the epidemic spread to methadone and in 2014 to heroin, a 10% reduction in prescription opiate supply in 2018 is the first successful intervention. Narcan (naloxone) injections and naltrexone pills are needed to prevent death from opiate adulteration by fentanyl under Sec. 301 of the FD&CA under 21USC§331. Corticosteroid inhalers must be exempted from the Ozone export ban in 2020 under the Montreal Protocol. Amantadine (Symmetrel) cures human influenza type A and the extra-pyramidal side-effects of antipsychotic drugs; corticosteroid inhalers treats asthma; antibiotics cure endocarditis, to solve resistance: ampicillin treats pneumonia and meningitis, doxycycline, the once a day antibiotic, and clindamycin (Cleocin) for children under 8 and pregnant women, treat bubonic plague, Lyme disease and Staph and metronidazole treats gastroenteritis and joints to be sold in hospitals cleansed with dissolved salt water and on Federal property by the Randolph-Sheppard Vending Stand Act (Pub. L. 74-732) under 34CFR§395.30 et seq. and 20USC§107 et seq.

 

Be it enacted in the House and Senate assembled

 

1st Ed. 2000, 2nd Fall of 2004, 3nd Martin Luther King Jr. Day 17 January 2005, 4th Halloween 31 November 2005, 5th American Pharmacists Month 15 October 2006, 6th 8 August 2007, 7th 5 November 2009, 8th 25 November 2010, 9th 24 October 2011, 10th Veterans Day 11 November 2012, 11th 30 September 2013, 12th 25 January 2014, 13th 4 November 2014, 14th 11 December 2015, 15th 11 January 2018, 16th 1 November 2018

 

 

1. To supplement Chapter 8 Gorgas Hospital §300-320.  New evidence continues to signal a rise in world hunger after a prolonged decline. The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World: Building Climate Resilience for Food Security and Nutrition 2018 was prepared by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). This report monitors progress towards the targets of ending both hunger (SDG Target 2.1) and all forms of malnutrition (SDG Target 2.2). Undernutrition and overweight and obesity coexist in many countries. Food insecurity contributes to overweight and obesity, as well as undernutrition, and high rates of these forms of malnutrition coexist in many countries. The alarming signs of increasing food insecurity and high levels of different forms of malnutrition are a clear warning that there is considerable work to be done on food security and improved nutrition. The absolute number of people in the world affected by undernourishment, or chronic food deprivation, is now estimated to have increased from around 804 million in 2016 to nearly 821 million in 2017. The situation is worsening in South America and most regions of Africa; likewise, the decreasing trend in undernourishment that characterized Asia until recently seems to be slowing down significantly. Without increased efforts, there is a risk of falling far short of achieving the SDG target of hunger eradication by 2030.  Global food price spikes often follow climate extremes in major producing countries. The impact of price volatility falls heaviest on the urban poor, who may spend as much as 75% of their income on food. For unilateral tariff reductions below 6% of sale value to end the trade war with China, it is absolutely essential that Congress pay P.L. 480 International Agricultural Assistance Programs 3% annual growth from 2017 to avoid any resemblance to Alleged violations of the 1955 Treaty of Amity, Economic Relations, and Consular Rights (Islamic Republic of Iran v. United States of America) (2018).  The USDA budget request is re-estimated to grow 2.5% while most outlays and other estimates for USDA agricultural services grow 3% annually.  Agriculture outlays grow 2.5% government, 3% services and 3.3% SNAP to sustain 2.7% average annual consumer price inflation and 0.6% population growth, 1% net new employees and 1.5% raise, except the Forest Service who deserves to be cut to prevent 65 times greater risk of forest fire than the Park Service.  The United States Department of Agriculture Budget office must produce a consolidated balance sheet to more accurately estimate federal outlays, undistributed offsetting receipts and congressional budget authority.

 

USDA Consolidated Balance Sheet FY 17 – FY 20

(millions)

 

2017 Review

2018 Estimate

2018 Arrears

2019 Budget

2019 Arrears

2020

Total Federal Outlays

129,786

137,848

133,389

133,299

136,912

141,299

Budget Request

145,939

143,606

149,588

139,429

153,328

157,161

Undistributed Offsetting Receipts

[16,153]

[5,758]

[16,199]

[6,130]

[16,416]

[15,862]

Total Budget Authority

214,622

218,848

221,447

210,264

223,820

228,558

Farm Production and Conservation FPAC

Farm Service Agency, Federal Outlays

1,458

1,328

1,501

1,012

1,547

1,593

Transfer from Program

[310]

[308]

[319]

[267]

[329]

[339]

Farm Loan Programs

[8,003]

[7,996]

[8,243]

[7,618]

[8,215]

[8,328]

Commodity Credit Corporation Fund

[7,065]

[8,450]

[8,450]

[10,318]

[6,822]

[7,027]

Commodity Credit Corporation Outlays

[9,969]

[11,277]

[10,809]

[7,655]

[11,151]

[11,481]

Subtotal, Farm Service Agency

[26,805]

[29,359]

[29,322]

[26,870]

[28,064]

[28,768]

Risk Management Agency, Federal Outlays

5,254

8,962

5,404

8,818

5,818

6,003

Crop Insurance Premiums

[3,677]

[3,786]

[3,786]

[3,639]

[3,636]

[3,730]

Subtotal, Risk Management Agency

[8,847]

[12,764]

[9,104]

[12,390]

[9,368]

[9,642]

Natural Resources Conservation Service

4,520

4,306

4,651

4,336

4,791

4,934

Subtotal Federal Outlays FPAC

11,232

14,596

11,556

14,166

12,156

12,530

Subtotal Budget Authority, FPAC

[40,256]

[46,413]

[43,163]

[43,663]

[42,309]

[43,435]

Trade and Foreign Agricultural Affairs

Foreign Agricultural Service

Salaries and Expenses, Federal outlays

197

195

203

193

209

215

Market Development Programs

278

398

288

230

297

304

Foreign Food Assistance

1,802

1,789

1,856

0

1,911

1,969

Subtotal Federal Outlays, TFAA

2,277

2,382

2,347

423

2,417

2,488

Expense Transfer from CCC Export Credit

[6]

[6]

[6]

]6]

[7]

[7]

Export Credit Guarantees

[1,582]

[5,500]

[2,000]

[5,500]

[2,000]

[2,000]

Subtotal, Budget Authority TFAA

[4,032]

[7,957]

[4,527]

[6,098]

[4,603]

[4,679]

Rural Development

Rural Utilities Service

[8,886]

[8,884]

[8,884]

[7,402]

[8,945]

[8,967]

Loans

[8,190]

[8,195]

[8,195]

[7,408]

[8,227]

[8,230]

Federal Outlays

696

689

689

-6

718

737

Rural Housing Service

[30,059]

[30,033]

[30,033]

[29,503]

[30,281]

[30,435]

Loans

[27,991]

[27,978]

[27,978]

[27,760]

[28,109]

[28,200]

Federal Outlays

2,068

2,055

2,055

1,743

2,172

2,235

Rural Business- Cooperative Service

[1,420]

[1,580]

[1,580]

0

[1,500]

[1,544]

Loans

[1,243]

[1,415]

[1,415]

0

[1,318]

[1,358]

Federal Outlays

177

165

165

0

182

186

Subtotal, Federal Outlays Rural Development

2,941

2,909

2,909

1,737

3,072

3,158

Subtotal, Budget Authority Rural Development

[40,376]

[40,497]

[40,497]

[36,905]

[40,726]

[40,946]

Food Nutrition and Consumer Services

Food and Nutrition Service

Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program

70,507

73,613

72,614

75,380

74,986

77,434

Child Nutrition Programs

22,794

24,444

23,546

23,147

24,323

25,126

Woman, Infants and Children (WIC)

6,350

6,313

6,560

6,465

6,776

7,000

All Other

698

702

718

717

737

759

Total, FNCS

100,349

104,872

103,438

105,709

106,822

110,319

Food Safety

Federal Outlays

1,032

1,021

1,047

1,031

1,086

1,116

Revenue Funded

[247]

[236]

[255]

[240]

[263]

[270]

Food Safety and Inspection Service

[1,279]

[1,257]

[1,302]

[1,271]

[1,349]

[1,386]

Natural Resources and Environment

Forest Service

6,077

6,006

6,066

5,172

5,172

5,305

Marketing and Regulatory Programs

Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service

1,305

1,289

1,322

1,035

1,358

1,402

Agricultural Marketing Service, Federal Outlays

1,079

1,096

1,111

996

1,142

1,176

Subtotal Federal Outlays MRP

2,384

2,385

2,433

2,031

2,500

2,578

AMS User Fee Funded

[222]

[226]

[229]

[255]

[236]

[243]

AMS Budget Authority

[1,301]

[1,322]

[1,340]

[1,251]

[1,378]

[1,419]

Subtotal, Budget Authority MRP

[2,606]

[2,611]

[2,662]

[2,286]

[2,736]

[2,821]

Research, Education and Economics, Subtotal

3,068

3,049

3,156

2,650

3,252

3,355

Agricultural Research Service

1,277

1,267

1,317

1,070

1,356

1,396

National Institute of Food and Agriculture

1,533

1,526

1,573

1,370

1,622

1,677

Economic Research Service

87

86

90

45

92

95

National Agricultural Statistics Service

171

170

176

165

182

187

Departmental Activities, Subtotal

426

428

437

380

435

450

Office of the Secretary

52

54

54

54

56

57

Office of Civil Rights

24

24

25

22

25

26

Office of Inspector General

98

98

101

87

103

106

All Other Staff Offices

253

253

258

218

252

262

Total Federal Outlays

129,786

137,848

133,389

133,299

136,912

141,299

Budget Request

145,939

143,606

149,588

139,429

153,328

157,161

Undistributed Offsetting Receipts

[16,153]

[5,758]

[16,199]

[6,130]

[16,416]

[15,862]

Total Budget Authority

214,622

218,848

221,447

210,264

223,820

228,558

Source: USDA Budget Summary FY 19

 

2. The majority of the overestimate is hypocritically pertaining to Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) worksheet on page 42 whose Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) beneficiaries have suffered unjustified reductions in benefits since 2014. The only justified budget cut is against the Forest Service due to arson. FY 18 the Forest Service employed 32,427, 36% of 88,500 USDA employees. Forest Service staffing cuts of -16% FY 19 and -10% FY 20 are the only cut that is justified as punishment to prevent arson of the National Forest and surrounding communities. Otherwise, 1% annual increase in staffing from FY 17 is estimated to be needed to inspect agricultural facilities, sustain economic growth, and promote agricultural trade with food stamp growth to redress the totalitarian famine since Halloween 2014 when the USDA first reneged on the Farm Bill of 2008 that changed the name of the Food Stamp Program to Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) promising not to cut benefits.  There have been a several million egg recalls in 2018 and manure testing for Salmonella is needed to prescribe medicated chicken feed. Furthermore, there were a lot of moldy grain products sold in the summer of 2018, causing an excruciating antibiotic resistant tooth ache and gastroenteritis, that can be directly attributed to the threatened termination of the Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration. Proposed Agriculture Department budget cuts are overruled by multi-million egg recalls of Salmonella contaminated eggs and poultry, moldy grain, and imported coffee contaminated with equal parts bad water, sheep shit, coffee leaf rust Hemileia vastatrix damaged C. arabica , and robusta Coffea canephora genetically modified rust resistant strain to be labeled and sold for less under Arts. 24 and 25 of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety of 2000 and Nagoyo Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from Their Utilization to the Convention on Biological Diversity of 2010. Coffee quality has deteriorated; due to Hemileia vastatrix coffee leaf rust many Coffea arabica growing regions have changed to the inferior quality robusta C. canephora to be controlled Art. 24(2) of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the CBO of 2000 encourages non-Parties contribute appropriate information to the Biosafety Clearing-House on living modified organisms released in, or moved into or out of, areas within their national jurisdictions. Art. 25 allows Parties to penalize the illegal transboundary movement of living modified organisms; the cost of repatriation or destruction is paid by the country of origin. The Nagoyo Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from the Their Utilization to the CBD of 2010. The objective of this Protocol is the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources, including by appropriate access to genetic resources and by appropriate transfer of relevant technologies, taking into account all rights over those resources and to technologies, and by appropriate funding, thereby contributing to the conservation of biological diversity and the sustainable use of its components. Cheap robusta and healthy organic coffee at regular prices. The USDA has been forced to redress FY 18 cut in food inspection FY 19 to redress the sale of adulterated and misbranded grain products. Adulterated and misbranded foodstuffs and agricultural products are removed from the market to protect public health under Sec. 301 of the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (FD&CA) under 42USC§331. USDA budget cuts and economic sanctions have caused too much irritable bowel syndrome to entertain any witness elimination strategies proposed by this President who has failed to prosecute the Forest Service for arson and instead targeted the Offices of Ethics and Civil Rights to suffer the first staffing cuts FY 18.

 

Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Statistics 2007-2020

 

Fiscal Year

Average Participation

Average Benefit

Total Benefits

Total Costs

--Thousands--

--Dollars--

----------Millions of Dollars----------

1969

2,878

6.63

228.80

21.70

250.50

1970

4,340

10.55

549.70

27.20

576.90

1971

9,368

13.55

1,522.70

53.20

1,575.90

1972

11,109

13.48

1,797.30

69.40

1,866.70

1973

12,166

14.60

2,131.40

76.00

2,207.40

1974

12,862

17.61

2,718.30

119.20

2,837.50

1975

17,064

21.40

4,385.50

233.20

4,618.70

1976

18,549

23.93

5,326.50

359.00

5,685.50

1977

17,077

24.71

5,067.00

394.00

5,461.00

1978

16,001

26.77

5,139.20

380.50

5,519.70

1979

17,653

30.59

6,480.20

459.60

6,939.80

1980

21,082

34.47

8,720.90

485.60

9,206.50

1981

22,430

39.49

10,629.90

595.40

11,225.20

1982

21,717

39.17

10,208.30

628.40

10,836.70

1983

21,625

42.98

11,152.30

694.80

11,847.10

1984

20,854

42.74

10,696.10

882.60

11,578.80

1985

19,899

44.99

10,743.60

959.60

11,703.20

1986

19,429

45.49

10,605.20

1,033.20

11,638.40

1987

19,113

45.78

10,500.30

1,103.90

11,604.20

1988

18,645

49.83

11,149.10

1,167.70

12,316.80

1989

18,806

51.71

11,669.78

1,231.81

12,901.59

1990

20,049

58.78

14,142.79

1,304.47

15,447.26

1991

22,625

63.78

17,315.77

1,431.50

18,747.27

1992

25,407

68.57

20,905.68

1,556.66

22,462.34

1993

26,987

67.95

22,006.03

1,646.94

23,652.97

1994

27,474

69.00

22,748.58

1,744.87

24,493.45

1995

26,619

71.27

22,764.07

1,856.30

24,620.37

1996

25,543

73.21

22,440.11

1,890.88

24,330.99

1997

22,858

71.27

19,548.86

1,958.68

21,507.55

1998

19,791

71.12

16,890.49

2,097.84

18,988.32

1999

18,183

72.27

15,769.40

2,051.52

17,820.92

2000

17,194

72.62

14,983.32

2,070.70

17,054.02

2001

17,318

74.81

15,547.39

2,242.00

17,789.39

2002

19,096

79.67

18,256.20

2,380.82

20,637.02

2003

21,250

83.94

21,404.28

2,412.01

23,816.28

2004

23,811

86.16

24,618.89

2,480.14

27,099.03

2005

25,628

92.89

28,567.88

2,504.24

31,072.11

2006

26,549

94.75

30,187.35

2,715.72

32,903.06

2007

26,316

96.18

30,373.27

2,800.25

33,173.52

2008

28,223

102.19

34,608.40

3,031.25

37,639.64

2009

33,490

125.31

50,359.92

3,260.09

53,620.01

2010

40,302

133.79

64,702.16

3,581.78

68,283.94

2011

44,709

133.85

71,810.92

3,875.62

75,686.54

2012

46,609

133.41

74,619.34

3,791.27

78,410.61

2013

47,636

133.07

76,066.32

3,866.98

79,933.30

2014

46,536

125.35

69,999.81

4,130.17

74,129.98

2015

45,800

126.83

69,705.77

4,233.42

73,939.19

2016

44,300

125.52

66,672.64

4,339.27

71,011.91

2017

43,857

125.52

66,059.17

4,447.75

70,506.92

2018

44,296

128.03

68,054.60

4,558.94

72,613.54

2019

44,562

131,49

70,313.49

4,672.93

74,986.42

2020

44,829

135.04

72,644.50

4,789.75

77,434.25

Source: USDA Food and Nutrition Service

3. SNAP administrative costs should grow 2.5% annually and SNAP benefit spending should increase 3.3% annually to afford 2.7% average consumer price index (CPI) inflation increase in average benefit and 0.6% population growth. SNAP cuts constitute deprivation of relief benefits under 18USC§246. The Farm Bill of 2008 changed the name of the Food Stamp Program to Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). Promising not to cut benefits the average benefit amount increased rapidly from $96.18 in 2007 to $102.19 in 2008, to $125.31 in 2009 to $133.79 in 2010. Participation increased 53% from 26.3 million in 2007 to 40.3 million in 2010 reaching a high of 47.6 million in 2013. SNAP promised not to cut benefits and between 2008 and 2013 had the longest uninterrupted spurt of food stamp benefit growth the nation has ever enjoyed. The USDA then intentionally, abruptly, and with significant terrorism, cut aggregate SNAP benefits on Halloween 2013 and Thanksgiving 2016, but couldn't do the math right, although they tried twice on October 7 and November 10, 2016, this constitutes two counts of aggregate deprivation of relief benefits under 18USC§246. Average benefits payments went down from $133.07 in 2013, to $125.01 in 2014, up to $126.83 in 2015 and down again to $125.52 in 2016 this counts as two counts of intentional deprivation of relief benefits under 18USC§246. A strange section pertaining to publicly operated community health centers (from 1985?) needs to be repealed under 7USC§212a. The final ruling is that SNAP administrative costs should grow 2.5% annually and SNAP benefit spending should increase 3.3% annually to afford 2.7% average consumer price index (CPI) inflation increase in average benefit and 0.6% population growth. As a rule, except for the Forest Service, whose National Forest fire risk continues to be 65 times that of National Parks, no USDA budget cuts or increases pass.

 

 Un-contained Fires, United States Totals by Agency and State 2017

 

By Agency

Acres Burned

National Parks

19,556

National Scenic Area

47,320

State

484,137

National Forests

2,232,800

United States

2,783,813

By State

Acres Burned

Alaska

69,814

Arizona

214,334

California

333,386

Colorado

14,428

Idaho

376,185

Montana

753,850

Nevada

82,438

New Mexico

37,331

North Dakota

5,000

Oregon

628,148

South Dakota

7,438

Utah

11,067

Washington

242,599

Wyoming

7,795

United States

2,783,813

Source: National Wildfire Coordination Group 2017

 

4. The Forest Service manages over 193 million acres of public land in 44 States and Puerto Rico, collectively known as the National Forest System (NFS). FS currently manages over 372,000 miles of roads, 157,000 miles of trails, 6,200 bridges, 460 agency owned dams, 39,000 buildings, 27,000 recreation sites, and 9,543 water/wastewater systems. The Forest Service provides public access to national forests for recreation; wildfire fighting and forestry; and infrastructure for businesses and industries. CIM funds construction and maintenance of infrastructure on the NFS, including buildings, recreation sites, facilities, roads, and trails. The FS needs to declare revenues from camping, logging and special use permits.  In the 2017 fire season 195 forest fires that were not contained within 24 hours burned 2,783,813 acres in the United States. The Forest Service burned more than 2.3 million acres, 1.3% of their 183 million acres of National Forests and Grasslands, while the 334 units of the U.S. national park system, encompassing 89 million acres of which 66,876 acres, 0.07% burned. The forty-eight national parks cover about 47 million acres of which 19,556 acres, 0.02% burned. The difference is explained by 47,320 acres burned in Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area. 484,137 acres were burned on public land held by State forestry, agencies, and field offices. 4,161 acres burned in one un-contained forest fire under county jurisdiction. The hills of Los Angeles were in flames and the smoke was unbearable in Portland. The Secretary of Agriculture is advised to ceremonially transfer the Forest Service budget to the Interior Department under 36CFR§261.5 and 16USC§551. It is agreed that 4,650 Forest Service arsons are to be fired by FY 19 for slashing and burning the National Forests, reducing Forest Service employment from 32,427 FY 17 and FY 18 to 27,777 FY 19. Layoffs will continue at an accelerated pace until FS has destroyed all the slash piles and satisfactorily restored the forests they slashed and burned. Unable to conceal the burned trees and not having disposed of the slash piles littering the public land, it is necessary to consider district by district seizure of all the land, campgrounds, headquarters, contracts, vehicles, tools, maps, liability, re-assignable employees and disability-retirement under 5USC§8337. FS ranger districts are on trial by Interior Department (ID) cartographers, not worried about closing a FS ranger districts, patented, with or without roads by Wilderness Preservation System under 16USC§1131 and 24USC§153. The Interior Department is authorized to make direct grants for wildfire fighting, trash removal, restoring slashed and burned National Forests, connecting the National Trail System, tent sized grade A flat farmland and non-invasive food forests under 24USC§423(b) and 54USC§302904.

Forest Service Budget FY 17 – FY 20

(millions)

 

FY 17

FY 18

FY 19

FY 20

Forest and Rangeland Research

308

306

261

268

State and Private Forestry

322

320

182

187

National Forest System

Hazardous Fuels Reduction

390

387

390

400

Forest Products

368

365

341

350

Law Enforcement Operations

127

126

129

132

Recreation, Heritage and Wilderness

265

263

240

246

Other NFS Activities

754

749

619

635

Total, NFS

1,904

1,890

1,719

1,763

Wildland Fire Activities

Preparedness

1,083

1,075

1,340

1,374

Suppression

1,248

1,240

1,165

1,194

Total, Wildland Fire Activities

2,331

2,315

2,505

2,568

Capital Improvement and Maintenance

364

362

95

97

Land Acquisition accounts

56

55

1

1

Other Appropriations

5

5

4

5

Total, On-going Discretionary Programs

5,290

5,253

4,767

4,889

FLAME Fund

342

342

0

0

Total, Discretionary Programs

5,632

5,595

4,767

4,889

Mandatory

Permanent Appropriations

309

296

299

307

Trust Funds

136

115

106

109

Total, Mandatory Programs

445

411

405

416

Total, Current Law

6,077

6,006

5,172

5,305

Source: USDA FY 19 pg. 50

 

5. Humans require 0.7 to 3.7 liters of filtered water for drinking and cooking daily per person. It is possible to filter this much per person, from nature or tap, with a small hand pump water purifier in a few minutes everyday. The average household uses more than 500,000 liters of water per year. That’s an average of 340 liters each day. 10% of water is used in the kitchen and for drinking. 30% for toilet flushing, 30% for showers and baths, 5% for cleaning and 20% for laundry. Households use a variety of water filtration technologies, costing from $50 to nearly $1,000, that force water through a membrane and sterilize with UV light all the water used by that household at little to no extra cost. The source can be municipal water supply, well or home delivery. Care must be taken to prevent source contamination by groundwater injection of any contaminant into the water line and also be aware that drought and flood can ruin water quality. Common causes of wasted water at home include leaking faucets, faulty plumbing, and the over-use of water for watering lawns and washing cars. In arid regions it has been recommended that yards be planted with native species to conserve water demand. Livestock are responsible for somewhere between 20% and 33% of the fresh water usage in the world, and livestock, and the production of feed for them, occupy about a third of the earth's ice-free land. Irrigating farms and watering lawns surely account for more than half of fresh water usage and industrial contamination of the water supply, thanks to modern sewage treatment. Even, at the freshest of mountain springs, wells and urban faucets, water filtration and sterilization systems are necessary to produce reliable potable water. Water filtration systems are not adequate to distill fresh drinking water from salt water >1,000 ppm and source water must not exceed limits of 90 contaminants tested for by the EPA. Basic water treatment involves both filtration to reduce particulates by 90% and boiling to prevent bacterial regrowth.  Normally, spring-water is expected to contain fewer than 500 parts per million (ppm) of total dissolved solids (minerals).  Over the past twenty years many improvements have been made to provide increasing numbers of people with access to safe water. In the mid-1970s only 38% of people in non-industrialized countries had access to safe water. By 1994 this had increased to 75%. While this may be considered tremendous progress, that still leaves 25% — more than 1 billion people — without access to safe sources of water. In addition, almost half the world’s entire population — about 2.4 billion people — does not have an acceptable means of sanitation).  In 1989, Canadian bottlers sold 23 million liters of water to the US; by 1998 this figure had jumped to 272 million. 

 

 Recommended Dietary Allowance Water and Macronutrients

 

Life Stage

Total

Water

(l/d)

Carbo-

hydrate

(g/d)

Total

Fiber

(g/d)

Fat

(g/d)

Linoleic

Acid (g/d)

Α-linoleic

Acid (g/d)

Protein

Infants

0-6 mo.

0.7

60

n/a

31

4.4

0.5

9.1

6-12 mo.

0.8

95

n/a

30

4.6

0.5

11.0

Children

1-3 y.

1.3

130

19

n/a

7

0.7

13

4-8 y.

1.7

130

25

10

0.9

19

Males

9-13 y.

2.4

130

31

12

1.2

34

14-18 y.

3.3

130

38

16

1.6

52

19-30 y.

3.7

130

38

17

1.6

56

31-50 y.

3.7

130

38

17

1.6

56

51-70 y.

3.7

130

30

14

1.6

56

>70 y.

3.7

130

30

14

1.6

56

Females

9-13 y.

2.1

130

26

10

1.0

34

14-18 y.

2.3

130

26

11

1.1

46

19-30 y.

2.7

130

25

12

1.1

46

31-50 y.

2.7

130

25

12

1.1

46

51-70 y.

2.7

130

21

11

1.1

46

>70 y.

2.7

130

21

11

1.1

46

Pregnancy

14-18 y.

3.0

175

28

13

1.4

71

19-30 y.

3.0

175

28

13

1.4

71

31-50 y.

3.0

175

28

13

1.4

71

Lactation

14-18 y

3.8

210

29

13

1.3

71

19-30 y.

3.8

210

29

13

1.3

71

31-50 y.

3.8

210

29

13

1.3

71

Source: Dietary Reference Intakes, Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, National Academies Last updated September 26, 2013

 

6. The Food Guide Pyramid was developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) in 1992, it is updated every five years. For daily exercise and weight control the Dietary Guidelines for Americans are to eat servings of whole grain foods at most meals 5-11 times a day, vegetables 3-6 times a day, fruits 2-3 times a day, nuts and legumes, 1-3 times a day, fish, poultry eggs 0-2 times a day, dairy or calcium supplement (green leafy vegetables), 1-2 times a day, and to use sparingly red meat, butter, white rice, white bread, potatoes, pasta and sweets. Stuff a cold, starve a fever. Chest pain must be accurately diagnosed. Eat a vegan diet for heart disease, no animal products. Pulmonary patients must not lose weight, they must consume more calories than they expend. White rice is the first line treatment for diarrhea and vomiting. Vegetables lessen constipation. People may become allergic to anything although some foods such as peanuts and chamomile tea are more allergenic than others.  Eating the standard American diet that’s based on meat and dairy products, with plenty of white flour and white sugar, one-third of the women and one-half of the men in the US population die of heart disease. The only diet for atherosclerosis, 90% of heart disease, is a vegan diet – no animal products, little protein and plenty of micronutrients. Vegetarians and vegans (vegetarians who consume no dairy products or eggs) not only have far less heart disease, but also have lower rates of cancer, hypertension, diabetes, gallstones, kidney disease and obesity. Not only is mortality from coronary artery disease lower in vegetarians than non-vegetarians, but vegetarian diets have been successful in arresting coronary artery disease. When it comes to heart disease the evidence is against animal products. Vegans live on average six to ten years longer than the rest of the population and in fact seem to be healthier on every measurement we have of assessing health outcomes. There are however a couple of nutritional deficiencies of concern. Iron deficiency anemia causes chronic diarrhea and iron can only be found in nettles, spinach and dark leafy vegetables, that vegans need to eat at least two servings of a day to avoid a deficiency. Calcium and phosphorus, both found in about 1% concentration in human tissue and diet, combine to form apatite, which makes bones and teeth. Calcium can be found in green leafy vegetables. Phosphorus can only be found in the mushrooms, soy and mung beans. It is much easier to exercise enough to eat an omnivorous diet. Adult sedentary workers and retirees should lean vegetable, while physical laborers, growing children and athletes benefit from high calorie foods. Weight loss is an ominous sign in pulmonary and cancer patients who must take great care to never lose weight, have limited endurance and must pack a lunch.

 

Estimated Caloric Need by Age and Gender

 

Age and gender

Estimated calories for those who are not physically active

Total daily calorie needs*

Daily limit for empty calories

Children 2-3 yrs

1000 cals

135

Children 4-8 yrs

1200-1400 cals

120

Girls 9-13 yrs

1600 cals

120

Boys 9-13 yrs

1800 cals

160

Girls 14-18 yrs

1800 cals

160

Boys 14-18 yrs

2200 cals

265

Females 19-30 yrs

2000 cals

260

Males 19-30 yrs

2400 cals

330

Females 31-50 yrs

1800 cals

160

Males 31-50 yrs

2200 cals

265

Females 51+ yrs

1600 cals

120

Males 51+ yrs

2000 cals

260

Source: Choosemyplate.gov

 

7. A calorie is the heat required to raise the temperature of 1g of water 1ºC. The energy value of food and human energy requirements are expressed as caloric equivalents. Macronutrients – fat, carbohydrates and proteins provide the most food energy. Fatty acids are used by the body as a source of energy and are provided for in our diet by animal fat and vegetable oils that when metabolized supply 9 cal/g. Carbohydrates are complex compounds made up of sugars that when metabolized yield 4 cal/g. Proteins, are complex chains of amino acids, supplied in our diet chiefly by animal proteins –meat, milk, cheese and eggs – and to a lesser degree by plants such as legumes and nuts. Protein when metabolised supplies about 3 cal/g. A sedentary person therefore needs to eat between half a pound of meat and a kilogram of vegetables per day.  More than 8 hours of vigorous exercise can increase caloric need to as high as the 5,000 kcal found in a pound of flesh. Since 1941, when the first RDAs were published, they have been updated 10 times by the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Sciences. The most recent revision was in 1989 when RDAs were determined for protein, 11 vitamins, and 7 minerals. In 1995, the Food and Nutrition Board deemed that a new, more comprehensive approach was necessary to setting dietary guidelines.  The Board replaced and expanded the current RDAs with Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) to provide recommended nutrient intakes for use in a variety of settings. The DRIs are actually a set of four reference values. (1) Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) is the average daily dietary intake of a nutrient that is sufficient to meet the requirement of nearly all (97-98%) healthy persons. (2) Adequate Intake (AI) for a nutrient is only established when an RDA cannot be determined. (3) Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) is the highest daily intake of a nutrient that is likely to pose no risks of toxicity for almost all individuals. As intake above the UL increases, risk increases. (4) Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) is the amount of a nutrient that is estimated to meet the requirement of half of all healthy individuals in the population. Each of these reference values distinguishes between gender and different life stages. RDAs, AIs and ULs are dietary guidelines for individuals, whereas EARs provide guidelines for groups and populations. 

 

Food and Drug Administration, Budget Summary FY 17 - FY 20

(millions)

 

Budget Authority

FY 17

FY 18

FY 19

FY 19

2.5%

FY 20

Foods

1,041

1,033

1,041

1,059

1,086

Human Drugs

1,330

1,611

1,853

1,397

1,432

Biologics

339

358

403

356

365

Animal Drugs and Food

195

187

225

205

210

Devices and Radiological Health

448

505

636

470

482

National Center for Toxicological Research

63

63

65

66

68

Tobacco Products

596

600

662

0

0

FDA Headquarters

281

314

347

295

302

FDA White Oak Consolidation

47

46

57

49

50

GSA Rental Payments

232

238

240

244

250

Other Rent Related

117

123

139

123

126

Subtotal, Salaries and Expenses

4,690

5,072

5,668

4,262

4,371

Export Certification Fund

5

5

9

5.3

5.4

Color Certification Fund

10

10

10

10

10

Rare Pediatric Priority Review Vouchers

8

8

8

8

8

Building and Facilities

12

12

12

12

12

21st Century Cures Act

20

20

70

21

21

Emerging Health Threats

10

10

0

0

0

Over-the Counter monograph

0

0

22

22

22

Total Program Level

4,754

5,136

5,799

4,341

4,449

Additional Opioids Allocation

10

10

10

Revised Total

4,754

5,136

5,809

4,351