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To supplement Chapter 8 Gorgas Hospital §300-320. To legalize marijuana worldwide. To reverse the 1,000% increase in fatal opiate overdose respiratory depression since 2001 with Narcan injections, naltrexone pills and prevent opiates from being adulterated with fentanyl and cofentanyl under Sec. 301 of the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act under 21USC§331. To exempt corticosteroid inhalers from the Ozone export ban in 2020 under the Montreal Protocol. To ensure Americans have access to chemically tested generic prescription drugs without prescription online and by vending machines in hospitals and by licensed blind persons on Federal property by the Randolph-Sheppard Vending Stand Act (Pub. L. 74-732) under 34CFR§395.30 et seq. and 20USC§107 et seq. - Amantadine for human influenza A and the extra-pyramidal side-effects of antipsychotic drugs; corticosteroid inhalers for asthma; antibiotics for endocarditis and those antibiotics that solve antibiotic resistance: ampicillin for pneumonia and meningitis, doxycycline, the once a day antibiotic, for bubonic plague, Lyme disease and hospital acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and metronidazole, for gastroenteritis and joints. To protect data with Open Source software, encrypted wifi and files. To regulate the $1 trillion global drug market with $600 billion in pharmaceutical sales and $400 billion in recreational drug sales, other than alcohol ($1 trillion and $890 billion tobacco sales, worldwide; $160 billion pharmaceutical and $65 billion recreational drug sales, other than alcohol $400 billion and tobacco $59 billion in the U.S. To delete drugs from the UN Office of Crime. To transfer International Narcotic Control Board (INCB) to World Health Organization (WHO). To create a Bureau for Alcohol, Tobacco and Marijuana (ATM) from the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau. To abolish the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) and create in the FDA a Drug Evaluation Agency (DEA) to receive Office of Diversion Control license fees. To eliminate sentences for illicit drug possession and trafficking, and release all nonviolent drug offenders. To abolish DEA Form 222. To prohibit dimethoxy-methyl-amphetamine (DOM) water soluble, three-day panic attack, then six months recovery from severe mental illness. To limit use of monoclonal antibodies to cancer drug manufacturing. To promote tractor roll-over protection (ROPS) and seat belt use. To wear a respirator when working in the dirt. To avoid Roundup, rBGH or rodenticide exposure. To limit exclusively for medical use, antibiotics in animal feed, pesticides and chemical fertilizers. To ensure high risk forest labor careers in mining, wildfire fighting, agriculture, commercial fishing and forestry, from least to most dangerous rural career, since the Mining Safety and Health Act of 1977, are insured for disability under Sec. 223 of the Social Security Act under 42USC§423. To account for Agriculture and Interiors Department undistributed offsetting receipts and sustain 3% annual spending growth for SNAP and Indian Affairs (IA). To fire +/-33,000 Forest Service (FS) employees and contractors for arson under 18USC81 with disability retirement under 5USC§8337 and donate remainder of $5.3 billion FS FY 18 budget to Park Districts under 24USC§423(b) and 54USC§302904. The right to bear arms under 16USC§1a-7b must be demoted to the Chapter on Obstruction of Lawful Hunt 16USC§5201 et seq with reference to Obstruction of Justice Rule 96 (Art. 134) of the Manual for Courts-Martial.

 

Be it enacted in the House and Senate assembled

 

1st Draft done as a Political Science Thesis in 2000, 2nd Fall of 2004, 3nd Martin Luther King Jr. Day 17 January 2005, 4th Halloween 31 November 2005, 5th American Pharmacists Month 15 October 2006, 6th 8 August 2007, 7th 5 November 2009, 8th 25 November 2010, 9th 24 October 2011, 10th Veteran’s Day 11 November 2012, 11th 30 September 2013, 12th 25 January 2014, 13th 4 November 2014, 14th 11 December 2015, 15th 11 January 2018

 

1. supplement Chapter 8 Gorgas Hospital §300-320.  It can be estimated that the gross aggregate global sale of pharmaceutical drugs is probably greater than $600 billion from 10 billion prescriptions.  The tobacco industry sold $890 billion, alcohol $1 trillion.  Worldwide consumers are estimated to have bought $400 billion in other recreational drugs.  The recreational math is intriguing.  Food imports and exports were $2.3 trillion. An estimated $15.79 trillion, one-fifth, of the $78.95 trillion Gross World Product (GWP) was spent on food in 2011.  US domestic consumers annually buy around $3.2 trillion of food, $250 billion of pharmaceutical drugs, $400 billion in alcohol, $59 billion in tobacco and $65 billion in other recreational drugs.  More than a million prescriptions are written every hour of the working day, in a year’s time eight prescription will be written for every man, woman and child in the United States. In more than 700 million annual office visits in the United States, a prescription of a drug is the single most likely outcome. Between October 2004 and September 2005 a total of 3.6 billion prescriptions were filled in the United States. Total US pharmaceutical sales in 2005 were estimated at $250 billion 66.4% of these sales were domestic. In 2003 the US biopharmaceutical sector was responsible for $63.9 billion in direct output, $38.8 billion of which was for research and development in 2004, and employed over 450,000 people across the U.S, 82,000 in research and development. $23.6 billion in taxes are attributed to the pharmaceutical industry, $6.4 billion of which were corporate taxes. Since the 1990s, when more than 50% of prescriptions were for antibiotics, prescriptions for antibiotics has gone down dramatically, in time with the expiration of patents. In 2003 there were 17 therapeutic classes of prescription drugs but these domestic sales do not include the $10 billion in high quality, nicely packaged, generic drugs from India. In July 2005, the ratio of generic/brand share of market by volume (weighted average) was 54/46.  In 2006, it is estimated to be 58/42.


Food and Drug Administration FY 2016 Budget 2014-2016

Agency

2014

2015

2016

Food

882,814

903,403

987,328

User-Fees

17,442

10,381

179,308

Food Total 

900,259

913,784

1,116,636

Human Drugs

466,303

482,287

484,678

User-Fees

822,930

856,312

886,902

Drug Total

1,289,304

1,338,599

1,371,580

Biologics

210,912

211,382

215,021

User-Fees

126,615

110,152

135,436

Biological Total

337,543

210,912

350,457

Animal Drugs and Health

141,566

147,577

165,752

User-Fees

31,641

27,206

31,440

Total

173,207

174,783

197,192

Devices and Radiological Health

320,815

320,815

327,760

User-Fees

107,174

96,768

128,388

Total

427,998

417,583

456,148

National Center for Toxicological Research

62,488

63,331

58,998

Tobacco UF

501,476

531,527

564,117

Rents

498,233

467,019

503,966

User Fees

206,806

211,172

235,109

Total Rents

705,039

678,191

742,072

Total Budget Authority

2,560,693

2,595,824

2,743,503

Total User Fees

1,825,965

1,909,351

2,186,501

Total Expenditures

4,386,658

4,505,175

4,930,004

Source: FDA FY 2016 All Purpose Budget Table


2. Fatal opiate overdoses have increased 1,000% since 2001 and more unwise surveillance seems to be the problem. Adopting the DEA Office of Diversion Control would not change the human drug FDA spending budget request of $484.7 million, it would increase user-fees by around $350 million, from $886.9 million to $1,237 million and overall human drug total budget from $1,371.6 million to $1,721.6 million and the total user-fees from $2,186.5 million to $2,536.5 million and total FDA expenditure from $4,930 million to $5,280 to improve the regulation of the drugs listed in the Controlled Substance Act (CSA). Narcotics and psychotropic drugs require medical regulation of the FDA with a minimum of interference by law enforcement as people adjust their drug habits to Customs. The Journal of the American Medical Association reports that drug overdose deaths were on the rise for the 11th straight year. There were a total of 38,329 drug overdose deaths in 2010 according to the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention and 60 percent were due to medications, the majority of which were prescription drugs. Opioid drugs, which include OxyContin and Vicodin, were the most frequently involved, accounting for three out of four medication overdose deaths. Only 17 percent of the deaths were suicides, meaning the vast majority were unintentional overdoses. The Department of Justice reported that fatal overdoses from methadone increased from 500 in 1999 to more than 5,000 in 2006. Narcotic Antagonists prevent or abolish excessive respiratory depression caused by the administration of morphine or related compounds. Naltrexone (Narcan) became clinically available in 1985 as a new narcotic antagonist. Its actions resemble those of naloxone, but naltrexone is absorbed orally and is long acting, necessitating only a dose of 50 to 100 mg. Narcotic Antagonists must be made available as rescue medicine with opioid prescriptions and part of the basic equipment of emergency responders. Opiates need to come under the regulation of the FDA.  Neuroleptic drugs include sleep aids, antidepressants and antipsychotics.  Sleep aids and antipsychotics are the leading cause of fatal drug overdose reported to the Poison Control Center, followed by chronic heart medicine in omission of antibiotics.  The potentially lethal extra-pyramidal side effects of antipsychotic drugs can be cured with one dose of Amantadine (Symmetrel). Antidepressants are known to cause over two hundred “minor” side-effects, the most frightening being aggressive withdrawal symptoms, which are exploited by unscrupulous mental health corporations. Neuroleptic, the medical term for these drugs means capable of damaging the nervous system.  The attempt to produce psychiatric drugs for the treatment of “mental illness” has failed.  Psychiatric drugs have been designed to torture, they are not real medicine.  Psychiatric drugs and propaganda for psychiatric drugs, including the career of psychiatrist, are hazardous and need to be recalled.  The herbal tea for hyperactive children is spearmint (Mentha spicata) in equal proportions with lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) to which can be added milky oats (Avena sativa); for mild depression and anxiety St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum); Valerian root (Valeriana officinalis) is a more serious nervine for stress, insomnia and anxiety. Cardiac drugs are the second leading cause of fatal overdose and people should be informed of the naturopathic alternative provided by Hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) 


3. Studies show inappropriate drugs were prescribed for 1 out of 5 elderly patients and 60 percent of the patients went home with a drug that wouldn’t benefit them.  Annually at least 1-3 million people are severely injured, 400,000 overdose and 100,000-140,000 die from adverse drug reactions. No other type of accident causes a million hospital admissions a year. There is clearly a need for drug regulation. Yet, the FDA only receives an estimated 1% of adverse drug reaction reports. Neither consumers nor physicians seem to have much confidence in the FDA. Physicians are much more likely to report adverse drug events to the manufacturer than the FDA. To monitor the safety of 3,200 approved drugs taken daily by millions of people, the FDA has a staff of just 54 in 1998, by comparison, to evaluate an average of 25 new drugs a year, the FDA has 1,500 chemists, doctors, toxicologists and statistical experts. In 1998 only about 4 percent of the FDA budget for drug evaluation went to monitor the safety of existing drugs. The four basic drug safety tests are addiction, cancer risk, unusual toxicity and cardiac effects. Of the top 50 drugs, 7 can cause addiction, 18 have cancer risks, 18 are unusually toxic, and 25 have cardiac risks. More than 90 percent of drugs are potentially hazardous to pregnant women and only five, including folic acid, are considered safe.  One out of eight drugs can damage the bone marrow, the critical source of new red and white blood cells. Neuroleptics (antipsychotics and antidepressants) and hypnotics (sleep aids) are the leading cause of fatal drug overdose reported to the Poison Control Center and massive recalls and criminal prosecution of corrupt practices are needed to terminate all psychiatric licenses. On the other hand, Antibiotics, insulin and contraceptives are so effective they must be made available to the public. If given for an infection against which the antibiotic is effective, it will be effective about 90 percent of the time. It is highly important to note that antibiotics are an effective cure for bacterial endocarditis while heart medicines endlessly treat symptoms. Contraceptives are better than 99 percent effective at preventing pregnancy and for those with juvenile onset diabetes insulin is virtually a 100 percent effective alternative to dying, instantly, however multiple daily injections are vulnerable to counterfeiting and clinical studies have shown that 50% of Type I diabetics die of counterfeit insulin injections within 22 years of diagnosis.


4. Government regulation of pharmacy began with edict of Frederic II of 1240 that separated the pharmacy and medicine professions. This led to an unpopular university oligarchy and by 1543, an act was passed giving the right of “every person being the King’s subject having knowledge and experience of the nature of herbs, roots and waters to use and minister, according to their cunning, experience and knowledge”. Pharmacists given the responsibility to help people to maintain good health, to avoid ill health and, where medication is appropriate, to promote the rational use of medicines and to assist patients to acquire, and gain maximum therapeutic benefit from their medicines. Pharmacists are responsible for maintaining vigilance that the supply of medicines and medical devices for patient self-care is sufficient and that drugs are not counterfeit or substandard and that prescriptions are not given in error by a physician, causing an adverse reaction with other medication, in excess, or causing the individual side effects. American colonists blended Native American Indian and European medicine exercising a right to self-medication that continues to this day. In the nineteenth century the patent medicine industry regulated drugs that were inspected by the Bureau of Chemistry of the Department of Agriculture. The Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 established the current regulatory regime that prohibits the interstate commerce in adulterated or misbranded food and drugs and was named the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1930. As of 2011 the FDA has been divided into (1) food, (2) drugs, (3) medical devices, (4) vaccines, blood and biologics, (5) animal and veterinary, (6) cosmetics (7) radiation emitting products and most recently (8) tobacco products. Prohibition has infringed deeply on the international drug trade supplying the analgesic and anesthetic drug manufacturers and since 2001 the annual rate of US fatal prescription opiate overdose deaths has increased 500-1,000% it is time for the United States to save $10 billion by abolishing FBI, ATF, DEA, Department of State International Narcotic Enforcement bribery, Office of Justice Programs (OJP) grants, White House Office of National Drug Control Policy and critically review FDA Office of Criminal Investigations convictions and federal police bribery under the Slavery Convention of 1926, to create in the FDA a Drug Evaluation Agency (DEA) to receive Office of Diversion Control license fees and to create in the Treasury a Bureau for Alcohol, Tobacco and Marijuana (ATM) from the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (ATTTB). 

 

Savings from Legalization by Department

Agency

FY 2016 (in billions) Savings

Department of Justice Total Savings

15

FBI

8.4

DEA

2.0

US Marshall's Interagency Crime & Drug Enforcement

0.5

Discretionary Grants (inc. OJP)

2.1

Department of State

1.1

International Narcotic and Law Enforcement

1.1

White House

0.2

Office of National Drug Control Policy

0.2

Source: Sanders '14 FY 2015


5. Global alcohol sales are more than $1 trillion and tobacco $890 billion. US alcohol sales were nearly $400 billion and domestic tobacco sales about $60 billion in 2015. In 2007 the federal excise tax raised $7.3 billion from alcohol and $7.2 billion from tobacco for a total of $14.5 billion in alcohol and tobacco excise tax revenues. Certified organic tobacco products are due a tax reduction for 14 years a year for rolling tobacco and 17.5 years a year for small cigars, for each year the excessive excise tax of 2009 was imposed in violation of
26USC§6423(c). Roughly 1 billion, 20% of people habitually smoke tobacco and many more alcohol and coffee as culturally accepted recreational drugs.  In 2000 180 million people worldwide - 4.2% of people aged 15 years and above, were consuming illicit drugs in the late 1990s; this figure includes 144 million consuming cannabis, 29 million people consuming amphetamine type stimulants, 14 million people taking cocaine and 13 million people abusing opiates, 9 million of whom were addicted to heroin. In 2000 the international trade in illicit drugs was estimated at $400 billion. Profits are reported to be so inflated that profitability of the illicit drug trade would be affected only if 75% of such shipments were intercepted.  Current efforts only intercept an estimated 13% of heroin shipments and 28%-40% of cocaine shipments. In 1999, the estimated worldwide production of opium reached a record of 5,778 metric tons derived from 217,000 hectares of poppy. Estimated global production of coca-leaf mounted to 290,000 metric tons from 183,000 hectares of coca. The United States is reported to be the largest consumer of illicit drugs, in 2000, U.S. citizens were estimated to spend a total of $64.8 billion - $36 billion on cocaine, $10 billion on heroin, $5.4 billion on methamphetamine, $11 billion on marijuana, and $2.4 billion on other substances. in the United States 15.9 million people ages 12 and older (7.1%) reported using an illicit drug in the month before the survey was conducted and 1% were reported as being dependent.

 

6. World food production value in 2014 was estimated at $2.3 trillion, about 4% of the GWP, $945 billion in food was exported and $967 billion was imported. Since 2008, more people live in cities than in rural areas. Of the 7.2 billion population 3.4 billion were rural and 2.8 billion hectares were harvested. An average of 2,900 kcal per capita are produced for 123% dietary adequacy, 117% in Africa, 120% in Asia, 129% in Latin America and the Caribbean, 114% in Oceania. Combined, the food and agriculture sector accounts for roughly one-fifth of the US economic activity $3.2 trillion of the United States’ $15.6 trillion Gross Domestic Product (GDP) 2012. There are an estimated 2.2 million farms, 900,000 restaurants, and more than 400,000 registered food manufacturing, processing, and storage facilities in the US. The 1.9 percent of the US population who work full or part-time as farmers receive 0.7 percent of the GDP - $109 billion – significantly less than half of the $275 billion administered as payroll, grants, loans and food stamps by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) at an annual cost of $150 billion. Rural industries are much more dangerous than urban careers. Logging has been the most dangerous career since the Mining Safety and Health Act of 1977 reduced annual mining deaths from over 100 per 100,000 to less than 20 per 100,000. Commercial fishing, is extremely dangerous, with about 80 fatalities per 100,000. In 2014 logging was the most dangerous industry with a fatal injury rate of nearly 110 per 100,000. Airline pilots with 60 fatalities per 100,000 workers annually, roofing with 40 deaths per 100,000 and some foundry work are more dangerous than farming. People who manufacture or operate particular industrial machinery run a statistically much higher rate of on the job fatality of about 20 per 100,000. Probably as the result of the retirement of pre-ROPs tractors the agricultural death rate has declined from as high as 40 per 100,000 since 2000, to around 22.2 deaths per 100,000 in 2014. Care must be taken with grain silos. Landscapers, construction workers and police officers run a heightened risk of fatal injury of about 15 per 100,000. The national annual average for all careers is 3.3 fatalities per 100,000. In 2010 the Department of Defense had a peacetime fatality rate of 2.2 per 100,000. Males tend to do the more dangerous jobs. On average there are about 5.5 deaths per 100,000 males and 0.9 deaths per 100,000 females. The average injury rate is around 3.3 per 100, a 3.3% annual chance of significant injury. Education and healthcare cary a fatal injury rate of less than 1 per 100,000 but nonfatal injuries are as high as agriculture, around 6 injuries per 100 workers per year.


Overview of Occupational Risk of Injury and Fatality

 

Occupation

Total Hours Worked (millions) 

 Injuries (thousands)

Injuries per 100 full time workers

Total Fatal Injuries

Fatal Injuries per 100,000

Total

272,663

3,553.9

3.3

4,679

3.3

Wage Workers

256,901

3,632

2.7

Self-Employed

15,959

1,047

13.0

Men 

154,791

4,320

5.4

Women

118,054

359

0.6

Managers

108,678

684

1.2

Agricultural Manager

2,003

263

26.0

Athletic Coaches

426

19

7.5

Rural Occupations

7,021

51.4

5.3

749

20.9

Crop production

2,201

20.8

5.2

248

22.2

Animal production

1,657

12.0

6.0

156

18.1

Logging

137

1.8

3.3

77

109.5

Sawmill

377

4.5

5.5

41

21.8

Fishing

52

2.6

0.2

22

80.8

Mining

2,561

15.9

1.9

181

14.1

Quarrying

170

1.7

1.7

19

22.4

Service Occupations

43,061

2,155.9

3.0

584

2.6

Police Officers

1,437

36.7

5.1

96

13.4

Landscapers

403

23.1

4.3

32

15.9

Sales and Office Jobs

59,874

71.1

0.9

332

1.1

Production

16,893

434

3.6

206

2.4

Transport

17,379

184.4

4.6

1,289

14.7

Airline pilot

250

24.1

7.0

81

63.2

Drivers

7,123

13.2

4.2

835

23.4

Industrial Truck and Tractor Operator

1,137

66.1

4.5

37

6.3

Refuse and Recycling

151

17.6

4.6

27

35.8

Construction

14,800

197.8

3.7

885

11.8

Roofers

346

6.4

4.8

81

46.2

Iron and Steel workers

119

2.6

2.8

15

25.2

Maintenance and Repair

929

30.5

2.8

67

14.2

Power Lines

260

4.4

2.0

25

19.2

Leisure

21,334

336.2

3.7

207

1.9

Alcoholic Beverage Drinking Places

427

3.7

1.7

21

9.4

Education and Health

40,633

624.7

4.1

144

0.7

Department of Defense

1,400

36,000

1.34

16

2.2

Source: Federal Illness and Injury Statistics for FY 2010; OSHA Table SNR05 Incidence rate and number of nonfatal occupational injuries by industry and ownership 2013; OSHA Fatal occupational injuries, total hours worked and rates of fatal occupational injuries by selected worker characteristics, occupations and industries, civilian workers 2014

 

7. Since the 1950s the nutritional quality of agricultural produce has gone down dramatically. The Food Guide Pyramid was developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) in 1992, it is updated every five years. For daily exercise and weight control the Dietary Guidelines for Americans are to eat servings of whole grain foods at most meals 5-11 times a day, vegetables 3-6 times a day, fruits 2-3 times a day, nuts and legumes, 1-3 times a day, fish, poultry eggs 0-2 times a day, dairy or calcium supplement (green leafy vegetables), 1-2 times a day, and to use sparingly red meat, butter, white rice, white bread, potatoes, pasta and sweets. Stuff a cold, starve a fever. Chest pain must be accurately diagnosed. Eat a vegan diet for heart disease, no animal products. Pulmonary patients must not lose weight, they must consume more calories than they expend. White rice is the first treatment for diarrhea and vomiting. Coffee is the first treatment for headache. Green or black tea is the first treatment for lung disease. Vegetables lessen constipation. Sedentary people as small children require about 1,000 calories a day, adult males between 2000 and 2,400 and females between 1,800 and 2,000 depending on their age and size. Exercise increases hunger and a marathon can double caloric need. A calorie is the heat required to raise the temperature of 1g of water 1ºC. Fatty acids when metabolized supply 9 cal/g, Carbohydrates yield 4 cal/g and Proteins about 3 cal/g. Vitamins and minerals are widely available from natural foods. They are important to maintain health and treating many diseases. One should ideally get all the vitamins and minerals needed from natural food sources to consume what could be construed as a balanced diet. There are also daily multi-vitamins and special vitamins for people recovering from a deficiency or with special needs, but there is no substitute for a healthy, balanced diet of natural foods. Phosphorous is so plentiful in animal products, including dairy, it is not included in multivitamins, although it is necessary for healthy bones, teeth, hair and skin. Vegans must take care to consume enough iron, calcium and phosphorus to make apatite. 


Public Land in the United States, by Agency 2017

 

Agency

Acres

Interior Department

485.6 million

Bureau of Indian Affairs

55 million

Bureau of Land Management

245 million

Bureau of Reclamation

6.6 million (7.1 million inc. easements)

Fish and Wildlife Service (interior, non-add federal or public)

90 million (interior, withdrawn from public domain)

National Park Service

89 million  (270 million with National Forests, and 467 million with related State, County and City Parks)

Forest Service

181 million (or zero)

Wilderness Preservation System (non-add)

109 million

Department of Defense

30 million

USACE

7.8 million

Total Federal Land (BIA non-add)

649.4 million

State Lands

197.5 million

City Park

>1.5 million

Total Public Land in United States

903.4 million

Source: Interior Department.  Trust for Public Land City Parks Facts Report 2011, Natural Resources Council of Maine (NRCM).

 

8. The U.S. has 2.3 billion acres of land. Only 66 million acres are considered developed lands. This amounts to 3 percent of the land area in the U.S., yet this small land base is home to 75 percent of the population. Developed and rural residential make up 139 million acres, or 6.1 percent of total land area in the U.S. About 349 million acres in the U.S. are planted for crops. Some 788 million acres, or 41.4 percent of the U. S. excluding Alaska, are grazed by livestock. Forest lands comprise 747 million acres. Natural Resources Council of Maine reports that of the 2,263 million acres of land in the United States, 786 million acres are federal and state land combined (34.7 %), 588 million acres of federal land (26.0%) and 198 million acres of state land (8.7%). There are another 1.5 million acres of city parks. The Interior Department (ID) holds a total of 486 million acres – 55 million acres Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), 247 million acres Bureau of Land Management (BLM), 6.6 million acres Bureau of Reclamation, 90 million acres Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), and 87 million acres National Park Service - 268 million with 181 million acres of National Forests slashed and burned by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service (FS). The Department of Defense (DoD) holds 30 million acres, US Army Corp of Engineers 7.8 million acres. The federal government owns a total of 649 million acres, not including 55 million acres held by tribal governments. States own 180 million acres. Cities own more than 1.5 million acres. A total of 904 million acres of public land are owned by federal, state, city, and tribal governments in the United States. 109 million acres of federal land are protected by the Wilderness Preservation System under 16USC§1131.

 

Agriculture Budget Correction FY 15 - FY 18

(millions)

USDA Outlays

FY 15

FY 16

FY 17

FY 18

FY 18 2.75%

Total Outlays 

132,381

124,125

126,000

124,031

127,682

Estimated Outlays

139,115

138,248

133,062

140,035

140,035

Undistributed Offsetting Receipts

6,699

14,123

7,062

16,004

12,353

OMB

139,115

153,773

151,485

153,011

153,011

Staffing

 

94,893

95,890

90,627

96,753, 64,804

Source: USDA FY 18

 

9. $140 billion FY 18 is more than enough to pay for USDA outlays of $124 billion or $128 billion if the President wants to stop obstructing the 3% annual food stamp program spending growth. $140 billion leaves the USDA with a comfortable margin of $16 billion or $12.4 billion undistributed offsetting receipts, respectively. The unexplained lower cost estimates of the President regarding USDA outlays are justified by the fact that, the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) and Rural Business Cooperative (RBC) are financed by off-budget congressional budget authority, interest on farm loans and electricity revenues, respectively, and should not be accounted for in the USDA outlay table. In FY 19, after FY 18 FS park dues, total USDA outlays, 2.75% more than FY 18, without the FS, are estimated to be $138.4 billion FY 19. Un-re-certified, at current 2.7% average annual rate of consumer price inflation, the SNAP grocery subsidy for the poor should grow every year 3% = % benefit amount + % new beneficiaries. After the 2017 fire season it is held that all +/- 33,000 Forest Service employees and noxious contractors must be completely fired for poison hemlock, leaches, fleas, tics, Lyme, rabies and arson within the special maritime and territorial jurisdiction under 18USC§81, with disability retirement under 5USC§8337. The remainder of the $5.3 billion FY 18 FS budget must be distributed under saw moratorium so that all National Forest and urban forest interface slash piles are chucked and thickets chipped by National, State, County and City Park supervision under 54USC§100101 et seq to improve quality of life and reduce risk of catastrophic forest fire under 36CFR§261.5 posed by the Agriculture Secretary under 16USC§551.

 

Interior Department, Subtraction Simplification FY 16 - FY18

(millions)

 

 

FY 16

FY 17

FY 18 error

FY 18 2.5%

Total Budget Authority

18,959

19,193

17,988

19,812

Revenues

-8,800

-10,700

-11,200

-11,200

Total Outlays

10,159

8,493

6,788

8,612

Federal Outlays

-13,400

-13,300

-11,700

-11,700

Undistributed Offsetting Receipts

-3,241

-4,807

-4,912

-3,088

Source: Interior Department Congressional Budget Justification FY 18

 

10. Interior’s FY 18 budget request is reported to be $11.7 billion in current authority, $1.6 billion or 12 percent below the 2017 CR baseline level. $11.7 billion is however $3.1 billion more than total costs for normal 2.5% agency spending growth FY 17-FY18. President's FY 18 Interior budget goes down from $13.3 billion FY 17 to $11.7 billion, FY 18. The Interior Secretary wants to reduce budget authority from $19 billion FY 17 to $18 billion FY 18 while revenues increase from $10.7 FY 17 to $11.2 billion FY18 for total outlays declining from $8.5 billion to $6.8 billion, leaving $4.9 billion undistributed offsetting receipts. Interior 2.5% growth to FY 18 is estimated to $19.8 billion budget authority minus $11.2 billion revenues, for total outlays of $8.6 billion, minus federal outlays of $11.7 billion equals. $3.1 billion undistributed offsetting receipts. Trump's national monument grab must be limited to the occupationally and recreationally safe national interest of mining to swimming hole contracts in Utah under 43USC§1701(12) and impeached from the fo-rest for Conspiracy Art. 81 Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ) 10USC§881, Art. 104 UCMJ Aiding the Enemy 10USC§904 and Obstruction of Justice Rule 96 (Art. 134) of the Manual for Courts-Martial. Public lands are to be retained in Federal ownership, unless as a result of the land use planning procedure, it is determined that disposal of a particular' parcel will serve the national interest under 43USC§1701(1)(2) and (12) to promote the Mining and Minerals Policy Act of 1970 under 30USC§21a. Freehold or leasehold interests in national parks and monuments of scientific significance are prohibited under 54USC§102901(a). Title 54, National Park Service and Related Programs was made law by Pub. L. 113–287, §6(e) on Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3272. Although authenticated by a split ticket and practice, the 2014 bill was sneak enacted, leaving a memory of obstructed Forestry, and it turns out that Chapter 1 National Parks of Title 16 Conservation was mostly repealed. To suppress terrorism Trump is challenged to settle the Presidential duel between Bush and Obama regarding the right to bear arms under 16USC§1a-7b that must either be repealed or transferred, with Trump's opinion on lawful hunts in the National Wildlife Refuge system, to the Chapter on Obstruction of Lawful Hunt 16USC§5201 et seq with reference to Obstruction of Justice Rule 96 (Art. 134) of the Manual for Courts-Martial.

 

Sanders, Tony J. Drug Regulation (DR). Book 8. 15th Edition. Hospitals & Asylums HA-11-1-18; 633 pgs. www.title24uscode.org/DR.pdf