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To repeal Chapter 8 Gorgas Hospital §300-320, to legalize marijuana and drugs worldwide, to ensure Americans have access to chemically tested generic prescription drugs without prescription online and/or over-the-counter, ie. Amantadine, ampicillin, doxycycline and metronidazole, to overcome Microsoft senility with Libre Office and Text Editor and reduce the price of Apple computers, to beware of cell phone GPS stalking by Cisco routers, to regulate the $1 trillion global drug market with $600 billion in pharmaceutical sales and $400 billion in recreational drug sales, other than alcohol ($1 trillion and $890 billion tobacco sales, worldwide $160 billion pharmaceutical and $65 billion recreational drug sales, other than alcohol $400 billion and tobacco $59 billion in the U.S. in 2001, subsequently fatal prescription opiate overdoses have increase 500-1000% and legal action is necessary, to remove drugs from the UN Office of Crime, to transfer the International Narcotic Control Board (INCB) to the World Health Organization (WHO), to abolish the FBI, ATF, DEA, Department of State International Law and Narcotic Enforcement bribery, Office of Justice Programs, repeal White House Office of National Drug Control Policy and critically review FDA Office of Criminal Investigations convictions and federal police bribery under the Slavery Convention of 1926, to create in the Treasury a Bureau for Alcohol, Tobacco and Marijuana (ATM) from the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau, to create in the FDA a Drug Evaluation Agency (DEA) to receive Office of Diversion Control license fees, to reschedule Tobacco and Alcohol II and Marijuana III in the Controlled Substances Act (CSA) and eliminate sentencing, to repeal the automatically refilled military contract loophole in DEA Form 222 and stop routinely disclosing consumer’s confidential patient identifying information, to enhance control of biologic and toxic products by limiting the scientific and medical use of monoclonal antibodies to cancer drug manufacturing and the FDA fast track drug, to wear a respirator when working in the dirt, to reduce crop insurance premiums for organic farmers to 10% less than contaminated fields, to limit exclusively for medical use antibiotics in animal feed, pesticides and chemical fertilizers, to improve food quality and repopulate farms and forests at urban rates of education and welfare without Roundup or rBGH addiction or high risk career in mining, wildfire fighting, agriculture, commercial fishing and forestry, from least to most dangerous rural career, since the Mining Safety and Health Act of 1977, to ratify the 1982 Law of the Sea and 1992 Convention on Biological Diversity and all biosafety and redress protocols, to conduct a scientific to study to see if new equipment makes logging safer and perhaps limit commercial logging to mobile crews with heavy equipment, or if logging would be safer limited to a jogging road or other socially and ecologically sound planning method, to reduce agricultural risk with tractor roll-over protection (ROPS) and seat-belt promotion, to refund organic tobacco vendors a tax rebate, for 14 years a year for rolling tobacco and 17.5 years a year for small cigars, for each year of the excessive excise tax of 2009, to eliminate sentences for illicit drug possession and trafficking, and to release all nonviolent drug offenders.

 

Be the Democratic-Republican (DR) Prohibition Abolished

 

1st Draft done as a Political Science Thesis in 2000, 2nd Fall of 2004, 3nd Martin Luther King Jr. Day 17 January 2005, 4th Halloween 31 November 2005, 5th American Pharmacists Month 15 October 2006, 6th 8 August 2007, 7th 5 November 2009, 8th 25 November 2010, 9th 24 October 2011, 10th Veteran’s Day 11 November 2012, 11th 30 September 2013, 12th 25 January 2014, 13th 4 November 2014, 14th 11 December 2015

 

1. To repeal Chapter 8 Gorgas Hospital §300-320 to reduce demand for surgery and hospital visits through cost-effective self-medication, diet and exercise.  It can be estimated that the gross aggregate global sale of pharmaceutical drugs is probably greater than $600 billion from 10 billion prescriptions.  The tobacco industry sold $890 billion, alcohol $1 trillion.  Worldwide consumers are estimated to have bought $400 billion in other recreational drugs.  The recreational math is intriguing.  Food imports and exports were $2.3 trillion. An estimated $15.79 trillion, one-fifth, of the $78.95 trillion Gross World Product (GWP) was spent on food in 2011.  US domestic consumers annually buy around $3.2 trillion of food, $250 billion of pharmaceutical drugs, $400 billion in alcohol, $59 billion in tobacco and $65 billion in other recreational drugs.  More than a million prescriptions are written every hour of the working day, in a year’s time eight prescription will be written for every man, woman and child in the United States. In more than 700 million annual office visits in the United States, a prescription of a drug is the single most likely outcome. Between October 2004 and September 2005 a total of 3.6 billion prescriptions were filled in the United States. Total US pharmaceutical sales in 2005 were estimated at $250 billion 66.4% of these sales were domestic. In 2003 the US biopharmaceutical sector was responsible for $63.9 billion in direct output, $38.8 billion of which was for research and development in 2004, and employed over 450,000 people across the U.S, 82,000 in research and development. $23.6 billion in taxes are attributed to the pharmaceutical industry, $6.4 billion of which were corporate taxes. Since the 1990s, when more than 50% of prescriptions were for antibiotics, prescriptions for antibiotics has gone down dramatically, in time with the expiration of patents. In 2003 there were 17 therapeutic classes of prescription drugs but these domestic sales do not include the $10 billion in high quality, nicely packaged, generic drugs from India. In July 2005, the ratio of generic/brand share of market by volume (weighted average) was 54/46.  In 2006, it is estimated to be 58/42. US generic pharmaceutical corporations, that are much smaller than their Asian counterparts, need assistance from the FDA to produce and market competitive antibiotics for sale online without prescription and Over-the-counter (OTC).

 

2. The pharmacist is a health professional who is the expert on more than 3,200 prescription pharmaceutical drugs. The WHO Model List of Essential Medicines is exhaustive, although it is neither complete, up to date, nor entirely accurate in their description of the safest and most effective generic medicine. Oral prednisone and corticosteroid inhalers require more protection from bone healing medicines. Iminitab treats lymphoma as well as leukemia. The Hawthorn naturopathic alternative to Digoxin should be explored, but the major interactions with almost all dangerous conventional heart medicine make it difficult to list the supreme herb for the heart. Is the competition corporate or chemical? Metronidazole can cause neural tube defects when taken in the first trimester of pregnancy. The two major debates in the WHO List seem to be regarding the effectiveness of amantadine (symmetrel) at reducing viral loads in HIV patients and the optional antibiotic treatment of cholera that's mainstay is electolyte supplementation. Does metronidazole work as well or better than other antibiotics, such as tooth yellowing doxycycline <8, for cholera like it does for other, less serious, abdominal infections requiring rice? Amantadine is such an effective and cheap antiviral that it should definitely be listed for worldwide consumption, even if it is not specifically indicated for HIV treatment, amantadine is the fruit of antiviral research and marketing to meet Millennium Development Goals regarding AIDS medicine, for everyone's flu. Furthermore, although carbidopa-levidopa would work to cure the potentially lethal Parkinsonian extra-pyramidal and Tourette's syndrome side-effects of antipsychotic drugs, WHO does not list any drug that is indicated to cure these side-effects Amantadine (Symmetrel) does. The WHO List of Essential Medicines is descriptive of hospital pharmacies. The United States needs to improve patient access to about $10 billion of generic drugs without prescription annually since generics-discount.com was prohibited by India in 2014. North Atlantic generic drug quality and corporate size are much lower than Asian; prices have been volatile and western generic drug quality is in need of improvement to compete with expensive experimental drugs. Chemical testing of generic drugs is needed to ensure drugs are properly labeled and unadulterated, and doxycycline heals wounds without scarring. The uninsured must find new online pharmacies without prescription, without any faith in doxycycline.


3. To make up for the $10 billion shortfall it is hoped the FDA will permit corporations to market the most necessary packages of generic drugs, and none of the psychiatric or narcotic drugs ie. Amantadine, ampicillin, doxycycline, metronidazole, statins, epilepsy, parkinson's and diabetes drugs etc., with adequate warning labels, improved packaging and chemical testing, at discount prices in pharmacies and grocery stores, over-the-counter (OTC) under 21CFR§330.10. FDA Drug Info wrote to sponsor clinical trials of Hawthorn for congestive heart failure, arrhythmia, cholesterol, blood pressure and circulation. Should the required warning be updated for Digitalis and related cardiotonic drugs for human use in oral dosage form, that states "Digitalis alone or with other drugs has been used in the treatment of obesity. This use of digoxin or other digitalis glycosides is unwarranted. Moreover, since they may cause potentially fatal arrhythmias or other adverse effects, the use of these drugs in the treatment of obesity is dangerous" 21CFR§201.317 so "Hawthorn is the supreme herb for the heart, it is indicated for the treatment of congestive heart failure, including moderation of arrhythmia, blood pressure, cholesterol, and circulation. Hawthorn is reported to have major reactions with all competitive heart and high blood pressure medicine”. The caution on antibiotics in 21CFR§201.24 is hereby appended, “to sustain healthy probiotic micro-flora needed to avoid complications related to antibiotic resistance take a probiotic supplement containing at least ten billion probiotic organisms within two hours of consuming antibacterial, or antifungal medicine and daily for two weeks after completing the course of antibiotics”. To mass market amantadine, ampicillin, doxycycline and metronidazole over the counter, there are a number of critical warnings that would need to be prominently displayed on the package. Amantadine treats the extra-pyramidal side-effects of psychotric medicine and flu. Ampicillin should not be taken by people who are allergic to penicillin. Doxycycline causes permanent yellowing of developing children's teeth and is not for children under the age of 8. Metronidazole cannot be taken with alcohol and causes neural tube defects when taken during the first trimester of pregnancy. Adverse reaction reporting to druginfo@fda.hhs.gov


Food and Drug Administration FY 2016 Budget 2014-2016

Agency

2014

2015

2016

Food

882,814

903,403

987,328

User-Fees

17,442

10,381

179,308

Food Total 

900,259

913,784

1,116,636

Human Drugs

466,303

482,287

484,678

User-Fees

822,930

856,312

886,902

Drug Total

1,289,304

1,338,599

1,371,580

Biologics

210,912

211,382

215,021

User-Fees

126,615

110,152

135,436

Biological Total

337,543

210,912

350,457

Animal Drugs and Health

141,566

147,577

165,752

User-Fees

31,641

27,206

31,440

Total

173,207

174,783

197,192

Devices and Radiological Health

320,815

320,815

327,760

User-Fees

107,174

96,768

128,388

Total

427,998

417,583

456,148

National Center for Toxicological Research

62,488

63,331

58,998

Tobacco UF

501,476

531,527

564,117

Rents

498,233

467,019

503,966

User Fees

206,806

211,172

235,109

Total Rents

705,039

678,191

742,072

Total Budget Authority

2,560,693

2,595,824

2,743,503

Total User Fees

1,825,965

1,909,351

2,186,501

Total Expenditures

4,386,658

4,505,175

4,930,004

Source: FDA FY 2016 All Purpose Budget Table


4. Fatal opiate overdoses have increased 1,000% since 2001 and more unwise surveillance seems to be the problem. Adopting the DEA Office of Diversion Control would not change the human drug FDA spending budget request of $484.7 million, it would increase user-fees by around $350 million, from $886.9 million to $1,237 million and overall human drug total budget from $1,371.6 million to $1,721.6 million and the total user-fees from $2,186.5 million to $2,536.5 million and total FDA expenditure from $4,930 million to $5,280 to improve the regulation of the drugs listed in the Controlled Substance Act (CSA). Narcotics and psychotropic drugs require medical regulation of the FDA with a minimum of interference by law enforcement as people adjust their drug habits to Customs. The Journal of the American Medical Association reports that drug overdose deaths were on the rise for the 11th straight year. There were a total of 38,329 drug overdose deaths in 2010 according to the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention and 60 percent were due to medications, the majority of which were prescription drugs. Opioid drugs, which include OxyContin and Vicodin, were the most frequently involved, accounting for three out of four medication overdose deaths. Only 17 percent of the deaths were suicides, meaning the vast majority were unintentional overdoses. The Department of Justice reported that fatal overdoses from methadone increased from 500 in 1999 to more than 5,000 in 2006. Narcotic Antagonists prevent or abolish excessive respiratory depression caused by the administration of morphine or related compounds. Naltrexone (Narcan) became clinically available in 1985 as a new narcotic antagonist. Its actions resemble those of naloxone, but naltrexone is absorbed orally and is long acting, necessitating only a dose of 50 to 100 mg. Narcotic Antagonists must be made available as rescue medicine with opioid prescriptions and part of the basic equipment of emergency responders. Opiates need to come under the regulation of the FDA.  Neuroleptic drugs include sleep aids, antidepressants and antipsychotics.  Sleep aids and antipsychotics are the leading cause of fatal drug overdose reported to the Poison Control Center, followed by chronic heart medicine in omission of antibiotics.  The potentially lethal extra-pyramidal side effects of antipsychotic drugs can be cured with one dose of Amantadine (Symmetrel). Antidepressants are known to cause over two hundred “minor” side-effects, the most frightening being aggressive withdrawal symptoms, which are exploited by unscrupulous mental health corporations. Neuroleptic, the medical term for these drugs means capable of damaging the nervous system.  The attempt to produce psychiatric drugs for the treatment of “mental illness” has failed.  Psychiatric drugs have been designed to torture, they are not real medicine.  Psychiatric drugs and propaganda for psychiatric drugs, including the career of psychiatrist, are hazardous and need to be recalled.  The herbal tea for hyperactive children is spearmint (Mentha spicata) in equal proportions with lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) to which can be added milky oats (Avena sativa); for mild depression and anxiety St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum); Valerian root (Valeriana officinalis) is a more serious nervine for stress, insomnia and anxiety. Cardiac drugs are the second leading cause of fatal overdose and people should be informed of the naturopathic alternative provided by Hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) 


5. Studies show inappropriate drugs were prescribed for 1 out of 5 elderly patients and 60 percent of the patients went home with a drug that wouldn’t benefit them.  Annually at least 1-3 million people are severely injured, 400,000 overdose and 100,000-140,000 die from adverse drug reactions. No other type of accident causes a million hospital admissions a year. There is clearly a need for drug regulation. Yet, the FDA only receives an estimated 1% of adverse drug reaction reports. Neither consumers nor physicians seem to have much confidence in the FDA. Physicians are much more likely to report adverse drug events to the manufacturer than the FDA. To monitor the safety of 3,200 approved drugs taken daily by millions of people, the FDA has a staff of just 54 in 1998, by comparison, to evaluate an average of 25 new drugs a year, the FDA has 1,500 chemists, doctors, toxicologists and statistical experts. In 1998 only about 4 percent of the FDA budget for drug evaluation went to monitor the safety of existing drugs. The four basic drug safety tests are addiction, cancer risk, unusual toxicity and cardiac effects. Of the top 50 drugs, 7 can cause addiction, 18 have cancer risks, 18 are unusually toxic, and 25 have cardiac risks. More than 90 percent of drugs are potentially hazardous to pregnant women and only five, including folic acid, are considered safe.  One out of eight drugs can damage the bone marrow, the critical source of new red and white blood cells. Neuroleptics (antipsychotics and antidepressants) and hypnotics (sleep aids) are the leading cause of fatal drug overdose reported to the Poison Control Center and massive recalls and criminal prosecution of corrupt practices are needed to terminate all psychiatric licenses. On the other hand, Antibiotics, insulin and contraceptives are so effective they should be made available over-the-counter. If given for an infection against which the antibiotic is effective, it will be effective about 90 percent of the time. It is highly important to note that antibiotics are an effective cure for bacterial endocarditis while heart medicines endlessly treat symptoms. Contraceptives are better than 99 percent effective at preventing pregnancy and for those with juvenile onset diabetes insulin is virtually a 100 percent effective alternative to dying, instantly, however multiple daily injections are vulnerable to counterfeiting and clinical studies have shown that 50% of Type I diabetics die of counterfeit insulin injections within 22 years of diagnosis.


6. Government regulation of pharmacy began with edict of Frederic II of 1240 that separated the pharmacy and medicine professions. This led to an unpopular university oligarchy and by 1543, an act was passed giving the right of “every person being the King’s subject having knowledge and experience of the nature of herbs, roots and waters to use and minister, according to their cunning, experience and knowledge”. Pharmacists given the responsibility to help people to maintain good health, to avoid ill health and, where medication is appropriate, to promote the rational use of medicines and to assist patients to acquire, and gain maximum therapeutic benefit from their medicines. Pharmacists are responsible for maintaining vigilance that the supply of medicines and medical devices for patient self-care is sufficient and that drugs are not counterfeit or substandard and that prescriptions are not given in error by a physician, causing an adverse reaction with other medication, in excess, or causing the individual side effects. American colonists blended Native American Indian and European medicine exercising a right to self-medication that continues to this day. In the nineteenth century the patent medicine industry regulated drugs that were inspected by the Bureau of Chemistry of the Department of Agriculture. The Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 established the current regulatory regime that prohibits the interstate commerce in adulterated or misbranded food and drugs and was named the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1930. As of 2011 the FDA has been divided into (1) food, (2) drugs, (3) medical devices, (4) vaccines, blood and biologics, (5) animal and veterinary, (6) cosmetics (7) radiation emitting products and most recently (8) tobacco products. Prohibition has infringed deeply on the international drug trade supplying the analgesic and anesthetic drug manufacturers and since 2001 the annual rate of US fatal prescription opiate overdose deaths has increased 500-1,000% it is time for the United States to save $10 billion by abolishing FBI, ATF, DEA, Department of State International Narcotic Enforcement bribery, Office of Justice Programs (OJP) grants, White House Office of National Drug Control Policy and critically review FDA Office of Criminal Investigations convictions and federal police bribery under the Slavery Convention of 1926, to create in the FDA a Drug Evaluation Agency (DEA) to receive Office of Diversion Control license fees and to create in the Treasury a Bureau for Alcohol, Tobacco and Marijuana (ATM) from the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (ATTTB). 

 

Savings from Legalization by Department

Agency

FY 2016 (in billions) Savings

Department of Justice Total Savings

15

FBI

8.4

DEA

2.0

US Marshall's Interagency Crime & Drug Enforcement

0.5

Discretionary Grants (inc. OJP)

2.1

Department of State

1.1

International Narcotic and Law Enforcement

1.1

White House

0.2

Office of National Drug Control Policy

0.2

Source: Sanders '14 FY 2015


7. In 1981 there were only 503,586 prisoners in the United States. As the result of mandatory minimum sentencing legislation in the 1980s and 90s, that forced the judiciary to unfairly target drug offenders, the US prison population increased 357.9% between 1980 and 2002 at an average annual growth rate of 3.6%, in 2004 it was estimated that there were more than 2.1 million people were behind bars. It can be estimated that there are now more than 500,000 otherwise harmless drug offenders in some form of penal institution who are entitled to release. Despite availability of free and affordable drug treatment the incarceration of drug offenders increased 1,322% from 19,000 in 1980 to 251,100 in 2000 and is attributed with more than half of the federal inmates and 27% of state inmates. Mandatory minimum sentencing changed the prison population and in 1990 violent offenders were receiving 99 months while drug offenders were receiving 88 months in U.S. District Courts. By 1996 58.8% of federal prisoners and 25% of state prisoners were serving sentences for drug crimes. Drug offenders are clearly being convicted quicker and serving longer sentences than violent offenders. FBI data indicate that 51 Federal, State, and local law enforcement officers were killed in the line of duty during 2000. Of these 51 officers, only 3 were killed while investigating drug-related situations. From 1991 to 2000, a total of 33 law enforcement officers were killed as a result of drug-related matters. Only fifteen of the 65 people identified for killing law enforcement officers in 2000 had prior arrests for violating drug laws. All the nonviolent drug offenders detained in federal prison would obviously need to be released before the United States would be eligible to tax as much as $4 billion of the $14 billion US market for recreational marijuana. In cases involving violent malum in se (inherently bad crimes, such as murder, rape and assault, jurors should consider the case strictly on the evidence presented, and if they believe the accused person is guilty, they should so vote. In cases involving non-violent, malum prohibitum (legally proscribed) offenses, including “victimless” crimes such as narcotics possession, there should be presumption in favor of nullification. Finally, for nonviolent, malum in se crimes, such as theft or perjury, there need be no presumption in favor of nullification, but it ought to be an option the juror considers. 


8. Global alcohol sales are more than $1 trillion and tobacco $890 billion. US alcohol sales were nearly $400 billion and domestic tobacco sales about $60 billion in 2015. In 2007 the federal excise tax raised $7.3 billion from alcohol and $7.2 billion from tobacco for a total of $14.5 billion in alcohol and tobacco excise tax revenues. Certified organic tobacco products are due a tax reduction for 14 years a year for rolling tobacco and 17.5 years a year for small cigars, for each year the excessive excise tax of 2009 was imposed in violation of 26USC(F)(65)(B)§6423(c). Roughly 1 billion, 20% of people habitually smoke tobacco and many more alcohol and coffee as culturally accepted recreational drugs.  In 2000 180 million people worldwide - 4.2% of people aged 15 years and above, were consuming illicit drugs in the late 1990s; this figure includes 144 million consuming cannabis, 29 million people consuming amphetamine type stimulants, 14 million people taking cocaine and 13 million people abusing opiates, 9 million of whom were addicted to heroin. In 2000 the international trade in illicit drugs was estimated at $400 billion. Profits are reported to be so inflated that profitability of the illicit drug trade would be affected only if 75% of such shipments were intercepted.  Current efforts only intercept an estimated 13% of heroin shipments and 28%-40% of cocaine shipments. In 1999, the estimated worldwide production of opium reached a record of 5,778 metric tons derived from 217,000 hectares of poppy. Estimated global production of coca-leaf mounted to 290,000 metric tons from 183,000 hectares of coca. The United States is reported to be the largest consumer of illicit drugs, in 2000, U.S. citizens were estimated to spend a total of $64.8 billion - $36 billion on cocaine, $10 billion on heroin, $5.4 billion on methamphetamine, $11 billion on marijuana, and $2.4 billion on other substances. in the United States 15.9 million people ages 12 and older (7.1%) reported using an illicit drug in the month before the survey was conducted and 1% were reported as being dependent.


FY 2016 USDA Budget 2014-2016

2014

2015

2016

Secretary

547

384

477

Natural Resources and Environment

10,383

9,471

9,711

Forest Service

6,111

5,385

5,263

Natural Resources Conservation Services

4,272

4,086

4,448

Farm and Foreign Agricultural Service

23,494

23,846

24,918

Farm Services Agency

12,649

12,870

15,856

Foreign Agricultural Service

2,021

1,980

1,945

Risk Management Agency

8,823

8,997

7,118

Rural Development

2,962

2,675

2,875

Rural Utilities Service

685

536

573

Rural Housing Service

1,694

1,714

1,814

Rural Business Cooperative Service

379

200

261

Food, Nutrition and Consumer Services

114,597

110,381

112,440

Food and Nutrition Services other than SNAP

26,638

28,552

28,748

Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)

87,959

81,829

83,692

Food Safety

1,024

1,029

1,025

Food Safety and Inspection Service

1,024

1,029

1,025

Research Education and Economics

2,845

2,889

3,360

Agricultural Research Service

1,150

1,205

1,426

National Institute of Food and Agriculture

1,456

1,427

1,668

Economic Research Service

78

85

86

National Agricultural Statistics Service

161

172

180

Marketing and Regulatory Programs

2,344

2,454

2,420

Agricultural Marketing Service

1,146

1,275

1,213

Animal and Plant Inspection Service

1,158

1,136

1,163

Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration

40

43

44

USDA Total Outlays

141,808

147,536

147,863

USDA Total Budget Authority

157,510

151,499

155,985

USDA Total Program Level

207,232

201,649

207,855

Source: USDA FY 2016 Budget


9. World food production value in 2014 was estimated at $2.3 trillion, about 4% of the GWP, $945 billion in food was exported and $967 billion was imported. Since 2008, more people live in cities than in rural areas. Of the 7.2 billion population 3.4 billion were rural and 2.8 billion hectares were harvested. An average of 2,900 kcal per capita are produced for 123% dietary adequacy, 117% in Africa, 120% in Asia, 129% in Latin America and the Caribbean, 114% in Oceania. Combined, the food and agriculture sector accounts for roughly one-fifth of the US economic activity $3.2 trillion of the United States’ $15.6 trillion Gross Domestic Product (GDP) 2012. There are an estimated 2.2 million farms, 900,000 restaurants, and more than 400,000 registered food manufacturing, processing, and storage facilities in the US. The 1.9 percent of the US population who work full or part-time as farmers receive 0.7 percent of the GDP - $109 billion – significantly less than half of the $275 billion administered as payroll, grants, loans and food stamps by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) at an annual cost of $150 billion. People are angry that their food card benefits were subjected to the deprivation of relief benefits on Halloween 2013 and the civil rights offense of the administration must not spread to the Social Security Administration (SSA) untarnished reputation. Rural industries are much more dangerous than urban careers. Logging has been the most dangerous career since the Mining Safety and Health Act of 1977 reduced annual mining deaths from over 100 per 100,000 to less than 20 per 100,000. Commercial fishing, is extremely dangerous, with about 80 fatalities per 100,000. In 2014 logging was the most dangerous industry with a fatal injury rate of nearly 110 per 100,000. Airline pilots with 60 fatalities per 100,000 workers annually, roofing with 40 deaths per 100,000 and some foundry work are more dangerous than farming. People who manufacture or operate particular industrial machinery run a statistically much higher rate of on the job fatality of about 20 per 100,000. Probably as the result of the retirement of pre-ROPs tractors the agricultural death rate has declined from as high as 40 per 100,000 since 2000, to around 22.2 deaths per 100,000 in 2014. Care must be taken with grain silos. Landscapers, construction workers and police officers run a heightened risk of fatal injury of about 15 per 100,000. The national annual average for all careers is 3.3 fatalities per 100,000. In 2010 the Department of Defense had a peacetime fatality rate of 2.2 per 100,000. Males tend to do the more dangerous jobs. On average there are about 5.5 deaths per 100,000 males and 0.9 deaths per 100,000 females. The average injury rate is around 3.3 per 100, a 3.3% annual chance of significant injury. Education and healthcare cary a fatal injury rate of less than 1 per 100,000 but nonfatal injuries are as high as agriculture, around 6 injuries per 100 workers per year.


Overview of Occupational Risk of Injury and Fatality

 

Occupation

Total Hours Worked (millions) 

 Injuries (thousands)

Injuries per 100 full time workers

Total Fatal Injuries

Fatal Injuries per 100,000

Total

272,663

3,553.9

3.3

4,679

3.3

Wage Workers

256,901

3,632

2.7

Self-Employed

15,959

1,047

13.0

Men 

154,791

4,320

5.4

Women

118,054

359

0.6

Managers

108,678

684

1.2

Agricultural Manager

2,003

263

26.0

Athletic Coaches

426

19

7.5

Rural Occupations

7,021

51.4

5.3

749

20.9

Crop production

2,201

20.8

5.2

248

22.2

Animal production

1,657

12.0

6.0

156

18.1

Logging

137

1.8

3.3

77

109.5

Sawmill

377

4.5

5.5

41

21.8

Fishing

52

2.6

0.2

22

80.8

Mining

2,561

15.9

1.9

181

14.1

Quarrying

170

1.7

1.7

19

22.4

Service Occupations

43,061

2,155.9

3.0

584

2.6

Police Officers

1,437

36.7

5.1

96

13.4

Landscapers

403

23.1

4.3

32

15.9

Sales and Office Jobs

59,874

71.1

0.9

332

1.1

Production

16,893

434

3.6

206

2.4

Transport

17,379

184.4

4.6

1,289

14.7

Airline pilot

250

24.1

7.0

81

63.2

Drivers

7,123

13.2

4.2

835

23.4

Industrial Truck and Tractor Operator

1,137

66.1

4.5

37

6.3

Refuse and Recycling

151

17.6

4.6

27

35.8

Construction

14,800

197.8

3.7

885

11.8

Roofers

346

6.4

4.8

81

46.2

Iron and Steel workers

119

2.6

2.8

15

25.2

Maintenance and Repair

929

30.5

2.8

67

14.2

Power Lines

260

4.4

2.0

25

19.2

Leisure

21,334

336.2

3.7

207

1.9

Alcoholic Beverage Drinking Places

427

3.7

1.7

21

9.4

Education and Health

40,633

624.7

4.1

144

0.7

Department of Defense

1,400

36,000

1.34

16

2.2

Source: Federal Illness and Injury Statistics for FY 2010; OSHA Table SNR05 Incidence rate and number of nonfatal occupational injuries by industry and ownership 2013; OSHA Fatal occupational injuries, total hours worked and rates of fatal occupational injuries by selected worker characteristics, occupations and industries, civilian workers 2014

 

10. Since the 1950s the nutritional quality of agricultural produce has gone down dramatically. The Food Guide Pyramid was developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) in 1992, it is updated every five years. For daily exercise and weight control the Dietary Guidelines for Americans are to eat servings of whole grain foods at most meals 5-11 times a day, vegetables 3-6 times a day, fruits 2-3 times a day, nuts and legumes, 1-3 times a day, fish, poultry eggs 0-2 times a day, dairy or calcium supplement (green leafy vegetables), 1-2 times a day, and to use sparingly red meat, butter, white rice, white bread, potatoes, pasta and sweets. Stuff a cold, starve a fever. Chest pain must be accurately diagnosed. Eat a vegan diet for heart disease, no animal products. Pulmonary patients must not lose weight, they must consume more calories than they expend. White rice is the first treatment for diarrhea and vomiting. Coffee is the first treatment for headache. Green or black tea is the first treatment for lung disease. Vegetables lessen constipation. Sedentary people as small children require about 1,000 calories a day, adult males between 2000 and 2,400 and females between 1,800 and 2,000 depending on their age and size. Exercise increases hunger and a marathon can double caloric need. A calorie is the heat required to raise the temperature of 1g of water 1ºC. Fatty acids when metabolized supply 9 cal/g, Carbohydrates yield 4 cal/g and Proteins about 3 cal/g. Vitamins and minerals are widely available from natural foods. They are important to maintain health and treating many diseases. One should ideally get all the vitamins and minerals needed from natural food sources to consume what could be construed as a balanced diet. There are also daily multi-vitamins and special vitamins for people recovering from a deficiency or with special needs, but there is no substitute for a healthy, balanced diet of natural foods. Phosphorous is so plentiful in animal products, including dairy, it is not included in multivitamins, although it is necessary for healthy bones, teeth, hair and skin. Vegans must take care to consume enough iron, calcium and phosphorus to make apatite. 


Sanders, Tony J. Drug Regulation (DR). Book 8. 14th Edition. Hospitals & Asylums HA-11-12-15 www.title24uscode.org/DR.doc

Test Questions www.title24uscode.org/drtest.doc